Dilema Etika dalam Penelitian dan Pendidikan Lingkungan


  • Abdul Rasyid Fakhrun Gani S2 Pendidikan Biologi, FMIPA, Universitas Negeri Malang
  • Andi Basliahwanti Murti
  • Devi Alvionita


Environmental problems are a major threat to human survival. Humans have created agencies and institutions that manage the environment, but there are still human activities that have a big impact on the environment, such as the large number of jobs that make environmental conditions worse. These problems cause ethical dilemmas in environmental research. Gaps in research and scientific ethics are important issues in the environmental field. To make ends meet, humans do not need to sacrifice their environment. To solve environmental problems requires natural science and technology combined with ethics to maximize these goals. This article is written as a solution to develop human morality and awareness by researching the following environmental ethics. Increasing the level of awareness can help increase human compliance in implementing laws related to environmental protection. Based on literature studies, current environmental problems can be overcome by changing the way humans perceive and behave towards nature. Ethical dilemmas in environmental research can be overcome by 1) efforts to improve morale, ethics and environmentally friendly research actions, 2) the importance of environment-based education and learning, and 3) environmental impact analysis (AMDAL).


Adiansyah, J. S., Ningrum, N. P., Pratiwi, D., & Hadiyanto, H. (2019). Kajian Daur Hidup (Life Cycle Assessment) dalam Produksi Pupuk Urea: Studi Kasus PT Pupuk Kujang. Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan, 17(3), 522. https://doi.org/10.14710/jil.17.3.522-527

Ahmadi, A., Abbaspour, M., & Afkhami Namin, N. (2020). Assessment of Iran academic environmental education needs with climate change approach. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 0123456789. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-020-02850-6

Aleshina, E., Miroshnikova, E., & Sizova, E. (2020). Transformation of microbiota of fish intestines and gills against the background of molybdenum oxide nanoparticles in environment. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 17(2), 721–732. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-019-02509-x

Alvionita, D., Subchan, W., & Iqbal, M. (2020). The development of ecosystem education game based on Baluran National Park for senior high school. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1465(1). https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1465/1/012039

Ardiyansyah, H., Prima, B., Hermuttaqien, F., & Bomans Wadu, L. (2019). Pengaruh Lingkungan Sekolah Terhadap Moral Siswa Sekolah Menengah Pertama. Jurnal Moral Kemasyarakatan, 4(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.21067/jmk

Burton, N., & Vu, M. C. (2020). Moral Identity and the Quaker tradition: Moral Dissonance Negotiation in the WorkPlace. Journal of Business Ethics, 0123456789. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-020-04531-3

Cullen, J. G. (2020). Moral Recovery and Ethical Leadership. Journal of Business Ethics, 0123456789. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-020-04658-3

da Silva Junior, A., de Oliveira Martins-Silva, P., de Araújo Vasconcelos, K. C., da Silva, V. C., Monteiro, J. M. R., de Brito, S. L. M. S., & de Souza Santos, T. C. (2020). Sustainability for Brazilian management students: integrity and opportunism. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 0123456789. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-020-00621-4

De Snoo-Trimp, J. C., De Vet, H. C. W., Widdershoven, G. A. M., Molewijk, A. C., & Svantesson, M. (2020). Moral competence, moral teamwork and moral action - The European Moral Case Deliberation Outcomes (Euro-MCD) Instrument 2.0 and its revision process. BMC Medical Ethics, 21(1), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-00493-3

Demar, A. I., Kolibu, F. K., Engkeng, S., Kesehatan, F., Universitas, M., Ratulangi, S., & Lingkungan, P. P. (2020). Hubungan Implementasi Program Adiwiyata Dengan Perilaku Peduli Lingkungan Hidup Peserta Didik di SMP Lentera Harapan Tomohon Tahun 2020. Jurnal KESMAS, 9(6), 68–74.

Egorov, M., Kalshoven, K., Pircher Verdorfer, A., & Peus, C. (2020). It’s a Match: Moralization and the Effects of Moral Foundations Congruence on Ethical and Unethical Leadership Perception. Journal of Business Ethics, 167(4), 707–723. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-019-04178-9

Eshrati, B., Baradaran, H. R., Motevalian, S. A., Majidpour, A., Boustanshenas, M., Soleymanzadeh Moghadam, S., & Moradi, Y. (2020). Investigating the relationship between extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli in the environment and food chains with the presence of this infection in people suspected of septicemia: Using the fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis. Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering, 1509–1520. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40201-020-00567-9

Febriyanto, B., Patimah, D. S., Rahayu, A. P., & Masitoh, E. I. (2020). Pendidikan Karakter Dan Nilai Kedisiplinan Peserta Didik Di Sekolah. Jurnal Elementaria Edukasia, 3(1), 85–91.

Gallay, E., Pykett, A., Smallwood, M., & Flanagan, C. (2020). Urban youth preserving the environmental commons: student learning in place-based stewardship education as citizen scientists. Sustainable Earth, 3(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s42055-020-00026-1

Gani, A. R. F., & Arwita, W. (2020). Kecenderungan Literasi Informasi Mahasiswa Baru Pada Mata Kuliah Morfologi Tumbuhan. Jurnal Pelita Pendidikan, 8(2), 145–150. https://jurnal.unimed.ac.id/2012/index.php/pelita/index

Gani, A. R. F., Arwita, W., Syahraini, S., & Daulay, N. K. (2020). Literasi Informasi Dalam Tugas Mini Riset Mahasiswa Baru Jurusan Biologi Pada Mata Kuliah Morfologi Tumbuhan. Jurnal Pelita Pendidikan, 8(3), 174–180.

Gani, A. R. F., Zaimah, U., & Wulandari, S. R. (2020). Studi Literatur Upaya Meningkatkan Literasi Informasi Siswa Pada Mata Pelajaran Biologi Selama Belajar Daring Efek Covid-19. Bioilmi: Jurnal Pendidikan, 6(2), 129–136.

Guo, W., Dai, H., & Liu, X. (2020). Impact of different types of environmental regulation on employment scale: an analysis based on perspective of provincial heterogeneity. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27(36), 45699–45711. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10428-5

Han, S. R., Li, P., Xiang, J. J., Luo, X. H., & Chen, C. Y. (2020). Does the institutional environment influence corporate social responsibility? Consideration of green investment of enterprises—evidence from China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Ikram 2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09559-6

Ichsan, I. Z., Rahmayanti, H., Purwanto, A., Sigit, D. V., Kurniawan, E., Dewi, A. K., Wirdianti, N., Hermawati, F. M., & Marhento, G. (2020). Pembelajaran Sains Dan Lingkungan Di SMP. Covid-19 Dan E-Learning:Perubahan Strategi Pembelajaran Sains Dan Lingkungan Di Smp, 6, 50–61.

Issakhov, A., & Zhandaulet, Y. (2020). Numerical Study of Technogenic Thermal Pollution Zones’ Formations in the Water Environment from the Activities of the Power Plant. Environmental Modeling and Assessment, 25(2), 203–218. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10666-019-09668-8

Kim, J., & Loewenstein, J. (2020). Analogical Encoding Fosters Ethical Decision Making Because Improved Knowledge of Ethical Principles Increases Moral Awareness. Journal of Business Ethics, 0123456789. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-020-04457-w

Koplin, J. J., & Gyngell, C. (2020). Emerging moral status issues. Monash Bioethics Review, 38(2), 95–104. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40592-020-00124-y

MohanRajan, S. N., Loganathan, A., & Manoharan, P. (2020). Survey on Land Use/Land Cover (LU/LC) change analysis in remote sensing and GIS environment: Techniques and Challenges. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27(24), 29900–29926. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09091-7

Mohebali, S., Maghsoudy, S., Doulati Ardejani, F., & Shafaei, F. (2020). Developing a coupled environmental impact assessment (C-EIA) method with sustainable development approach for environmental analysis in coal industries. In Environment, Development and Sustainability (Vol. 22, Issue 7). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-019-00513-2

Newman, A., Le, H., North-Samardzic, A., & Cohen, M. (2020). Moral Disengagement at Work: A Review and Research Agenda. In Journal of Business Ethics (Vol. 167, Issue 3). Springer Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-019-04173-0

Parameswari, P. P., Yani, M., & Ismayana, A. (2019). Penilaian Daur Hidup (Life Cycle Assesment) Produk Kina Di PT Sinkona Indonesia Lestari. Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan, 17(2), 351. https://doi.org/10.14710/jil.17.2.351-358

Pianezzi, D., Nørreklit, H., & Cinquini, L. (2020). Academia After Virtue? An Inquiry into the Moral Character(s) of Academics. Journal of Business Ethics, 167(3), 571–588. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-019-04185-w

Queiroz, L. G., do Prado, C. C. A., de Almeida, É. C., Dörr, F. A., Pinto, E., da Silva, F. T., & de Paiva, T. C. B. (2020). Responses of Aquatic Nontarget Organisms in Experiments Simulating a Scenario of Contamination by Imidacloprid in a Freshwater Environment. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-020-00782-3

Rezaei, S., & Maihami, R. (2020). Optimizing the sustainable decisions in a multi-echelon closed-loop supply chain of the manufacturing/remanufacturing products with a competitive environment. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 22(7), 6445–6471. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-019-00491-5

Rezeqi, S., Brata, W. W. W., Handayani, D., & Gani, A. R. F. (2020). Analisis Kebutuhan Bahan Ajar Taksonomi Organisme Tingkat Rendah Terhadap Capaian Pembelajaran Berbasis KKNI. Jurnal Pelita Pendidikan, 7(2), 080–086.

Rezeqi, S., Nasution, A., Gani, A. R. F., Ginting, E. B., & Ginting, E. (2020). Evaluasi Aplikasi Berbasis Power Point Sebagai Sumber Belajar Pada Materi Metode Etnobiologi. BEST Journal (Biology Education, Science & Technology), 3(2), 263–269.

Rufaidah, A. S., Suparno, & Jamaludin, U. (2020). Penanaman Karakter Peduli Lingkungan Pada Siswa Di SD Negeri Sukamulya I Melalui Program Kurassaki. Jurnal Pendidikan Dasar Nusantara, 6, 65–83.

Sakizadeh, M., & Chua, L. H. C. (2020). Environmental impact of Karkheh Dam in the southern part of Iran on groundwater quality by intervention and trend analysis. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 192(11). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-08629-z

Santoso, D. H., Prasetya, J. D., & Rahman, D. (2020). Analisis Daya Dukung Lingkungan Hidup Berbasis Jasa Ekosistem Penyediaan Air Bersih Di Pulau Karimunjawa. Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan, 18(2), 290–296. https://doi.org/10.14710/jil.18.2.290-296

Schaefer, U., & Bouwmeester, O. (2020). Reconceptualizing Moral Disengagement as a Process: Transcending Overly Liberal and Overly Conservative Practice in the Field. Journal of Business Ethics, 0123456789. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-020-04520-6

Scharlemann, J. P. W., Brock, R. C., Balfour, N., Brown, C., Burgess, N. D., Guth, M. K., Ingram, D. J., Lane, R., Martin, J. G. C., Wicander, S., & Kapos, V. (2020). Towards understanding interactions between Sustainable Development Goals: the role of environment–human linkages. Sustainability Science, 15(6), 1573–1584. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11625-020-00799-6

Sugiyono. (2018). Metode Penelitian Pendidikan (Pendekatan Kuantitatif, Kualitatif, dan R&D). Alfabeta.

Suryadi, S., Dharmawan, A. H., & Barus, B. (2020). Ekspansi Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit : Persoalan Sosial, Ekonomi dan Lingkungan Hidup (Studi Kasus Kab. Pelalawan, Riau). Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan, 18(2), 367–374. https://doi.org/10.14710/jil.18.2.367-374

Suryani, L., & Seto, S. B. (2020). Penerapan Media Audio Visual untuk Meningkatan Perilaku Cinta Lingkungan pada Golden Age. Jurnal Obsesi : Jurnal Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini, 5(1), 900–908. https://doi.org/10.31004/obsesi.v5i1.601

Tahir, M. B., Ahmad, A., Iqbal, T., Ijaz, M., Muhammad, S., & Siddeeg, S. M. (2020). Advances in photo-catalysis approach for the removal of toxic personal care product in aqueous environment. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 22(7), 6029–6052. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-019-00495-1

Tiwari, V., & Thakur, S. (2020). Environment sustainability through sustainability innovations. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 0123456789. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-020-00899-4

van Oers, L., Guinée, J. B., Heijungs, R., Schulze, R., Alvarenga, R. A. F., Dewulf, J., Drielsma, J., Sanjuan-Delmás, D., Kampmann, T. C., Bark, G., Uriarte, A. G., Menger, P., Lindblom, M., Alcon, L., Ramos, M. S., & Torres, J. M. E. (2020). Top-down characterization of resource use in LCA: from problem definition of resource use to operational characterization factors for dissipation of elements to the environment. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 25(11), 2255–2273. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11367-020-01819-4

Wibowo, A., Hendrarto, B., & Hadiyarto, A. (2013). Strukturisasi Sistem Pengelolaan Lingkungan Gua Maria Kerep Ambarawa ( Structuring Sustainable Environmental Management System for Area of Catholic. Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan, 11(1), 1–9.

Yang, B., Bai, Z., & Zhang, J. (2020). Environmental impact of mining-associated carbon emissions and analysis of cleaner production strategies in China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Salomons 1995. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11551-z

Yu, T. K., Lavallee, J. P., Di Giusto, B., Chang, I. C., & Yu, T. Y. (2020). Risk perception and response toward climate change for higher education students in Taiwan. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27(20), 24749–24759. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-07450-7