AN An Investigation of Teachers’ Roles in Remote Teaching Context


  • Ni G.A Made Ari Dharma Pattni Ganesha University of Education
  • IGA L. Purnamika Utami Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha
  • Luh Gd. Rahayu Budiarta Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha



Online learning, teachers’ role, teaching challenges


Remote teaching has emerged as an increasingly utilized learning strategy amidst the pandemic in order to mitigate the spread of the COVID-19 virus. Therefore this study aims to analyze the teachers’ roles and their challenges in the context of remote teaching. Moreover, the study was researched by using a qualitative method in which the data will be served descriptively. Specifically, observation and interview methods are used to collect data from two EFL teachers at the senior high school level. Data analysis consist of four process there are data collection, data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing and verification.The result of this study showed that the teachers implemented eight different roles in the context of remote teaching namely controller, organizer, assessor, prompter, participant, resource, tutor, and observer. Furthermore, in applying for these roles, the teachers also faced some challenges from different categories such as poor connection, low motivation of students, difficulty in sharing and in preparing the learning material, limited access to learning platforms, and difficulty in the assignment process.



Agustina, D., Matra, S. D., & Karimah, S. (2020). Challenges of Having Online Learning Activities: University Students’ Perspectives. INELTAL Conference Proceedings The International English Language Teachers and Lecturers Conference, 9–14.’-Perspectives.pdf.

Ahmad, P., & Triastuti, A. (2021). EFL Teachers’ Experiences During The Pandemic: Stories from Rural Area in Tungkal Ilir District. IJEE (Indonesian Journal of English Education, 8(2), 297–308. DOI:

Akbarjono, A., Belawati, E., & Afriani, Z. L. (2022). Students’ Enthusiasm in Learning The COVID-19 Outbreak. Journal of Research on Language Education, 3(1), 15. DOI:

Alhamuddin, A., & Zebua, R. S. Y. (2021). Perceptions of Indonesian Students on the Role of Teachers in Offline and Online Learning During the Covid-19 Pandemic Period. Jurnal Kependidikan: Jurnal Hasil Penelitian Dan Kajian Kepustakaan Di Bidang Pendidikan, Pengajaran Dan Pembelajaran, 7(4), 834. DOI:

Anggriani, N. M. G., Artini, L. P., & Marsakawati, N. P. E. (2022). The Teachers’ Roles in An Online English Teaching. Lingua Scientia, 29(2), 77–85.

Annisa, P. S. M., Saragih, B., & Bancin, H. T. D. (2021). Teacher Roles Used in English Classroom Interaction. Jurnal Darma Agung, 29(1), 135–145. DOI:

Aspers, P., & Corte, U. (2019). What is Qualitative in Qualitative Research. Qualitative Sociology, 42(2), 139–160. DOI:

Aziz, F., & Kazi, A. S. (2019). Role of Teachers in Students’ Classroom Participation in Universities. International Journal of Educational Enquiry and Reflection, 4(1), 46–57.

Cerezo, L., Caras, A., & Leow, R. P. (2016). The Effectiveness Of Guided Induction Versus Deductive Instruction On The Development Of Complex Spanish Gustar Structures. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 38(2), 265–291. DOI:

Clarin, A. S., & Baluyos, E. L. (2022). Challenges Encountered in the Implementation of Online Distance Learning. EduLine: Journal of Education and Learning Innovation, 2(1), 33–46. DOI:

Dantes, G. R., Audina, I. P., Marsakawati, N. P. E., & Suwastini, N. K. A. (2022). Investigating the Zoom application as a video conferencing platform in the online learning process based on teacher’s perception. Janapati, 11(2), 133–144. DOI:

Fahmi, A. N., Yusuf, M., & Muchtarom, M. (2021). Integration of Technology in Learning Activities: E-Module on Islamic Religious Education Learning for Vocational High School Students. Journal of Education Technology, 5(2), 282–290. DOI:

Febrianto, P. T., Mas’udahdah, S., & Megasari, L. A. (2020). Implementation of Online Learning during the Covid-19 Pandemic on Madura Island, Indonesia. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 19(8), 233–254. DOI:

Haka, N. B., Makrupah, S., & Anggoro, B. S. (2020). Pengembangan website online berbasis blended learning untuk meningkatkan penguasaan konsep mata pelajaran IPA. Jurnal Bioterdidik: Wahana Ekspresi Ilmiah, 8(1), 66–76.

Huang, Q. (2018). Examining Teachers’ Roles in Online Learning. The EuroCALL Review, 26(2), 3. DOI:

Ilias, A., Baidi, N., Ghani, E. K., & Razali, F. M. (2020). Issues on the Use of Online Learning: An Exploratory Study Among University Students During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(11), 5092–5105. DOI:

Karuniasih, N. L. A. G. (2022). Exploring Readiness of Teachers Toward English Remote Teaching. Journal of Educational Study, 1(3), 134–149. DOI:

Lai, C.-S., Au, K.-M., & Low, C.-S. (2021). Beyond Conventional Classroom Learning: Linking Emotions and Self-Efficacy to Academic Achievement and Satisfaction with Online Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Education and E-Learning Research, 8(4). DOI:

Liliana, R. A., Raharjo, W., Jauhari, I., & Sulisworo, D. (2020). Effects of the online interactive learning media on student’s achievement and interest in physics. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(3 B), 59–68. DOI:

Lusiyani, R., & Dara Anindya, W. (2021). Choosing and Using Learning Media during Remote Teaching: Teachers’ Thought. Journal of English Language Teaching and Linguistics) e-ISSN, 6(2), 2021. DOI:

Makarova, E. A., & Makarova, E. L. (2018). Blending pedagogy and digital technology to transform educational environment. International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education, 6(2), 57–65. DOI:

Maria Josephine Arokia Marie, S. (2021). Improved pedagogical practices strengthens the performance of student teachers by a blended learning approach. Social Sciences & Humanities Open, 4(1), 100199. DOI:

Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldana, J. (2014). Qualitative Data Analysis. Sage Publication.

Mukarromah, U., & Wijayanti, W. (2021). Implementation of the online learning at vocational high school during Covid-19: Between obligations and barriers. Jurnal Pendidikan Vokasi, 11(1). DOI:

Musdalifah, U. K. S., & Jumiaty, A. A. (2022). Teachers’ Difficulties in Online Assessment for Students in Teaching English During Pandemics. Journal of Language Testing and Assessment, 2(1), 1–6. DOI:

Nasrullah, M., Wahdaniar, N., & Saleh, S. (2022). Factors Causing Lack of Students’ Learning Motivation in the Online Learning Process During the COVID-19 Pandemic Class X at SMK Negeri 4 Sinjai. Pinisi Journal of Education and Management, 1(1). Pinisi Journal of Education and Managemen_Factors Causing Lack of Students.pdf.

Nieto-Escamez, F. A., & Roldán-Tapia, M. D. (2021). Gamification as Online Teaching Strategy During COVID-19: A Mini-Review. Frontiers in Psychology, 12(May), 1–9. DOI:

Nurhalisah, N. (2010). Peranan Guru Dalam Pengelolaan Kelas. Lentera Pendidikan : Jurnal Ilmu Tarbiyah Dan Keguruan, 13(2), 192–210. DOI:

Nyudak, D. T., Putra, I. N. A. J., & Santosa, M. H. (2021). Investigating the Implementation of Online Learning in Remote Learning Context. Journal of Education Research and Evaluation, 5(2), 311. DOI:

Rehman, R., & Fatima, S. S. (2021). An innovation in Flipped Class Room: A teaching model to facilitate synchronous and asynchronous learning during a pandemic. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 37(1), 1–6. DOI:

Rindu, I., & Ariyanti, A. (2017). Teacher’s Role in Managing the Class during Teaching and Learning Process. Script Journal: Journal of Linguistic and English Teaching, 2(1), 83. DOI:

Rinekso, A. B., Muslim, A. B., & Lesagia, O. (2021). Teaching Online in Pandemic Time: The Experience of Indonesian EFL Teachers. ETERNAL (English, Teaching, Learning, and Research Journal, 7(1), 117. DOI:

Sadiku, L. M. (2015). The Importance of Four Skills Reading, Speaking, Writing, Listening in a Lesson Hour. European Journal of Language and Literature, 1(1), 29. DOI:

Sadykhan, K., Azizkhoja, K., Gulnar, K., Nurlan, K., Askar, M., & Azimkhuzha, P. (2022). Research of pedagogical conditions for the development of students’ educational independence. Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences, 17(5), 1838–1851. DOI:

Safira, Y. F., Hadi, M. S., & Zaitun, Z. (2021). an Analysis of English Language Teaching Activities During Covid-19 Pandemic At Smp Purnama Jakarta. Journal of Languages and Language Teaching, 9(2), 212. DOI:

Santelli, B., Robertson, S. N., Larson, E. K., & Humphrey, S. (2020). Procrastination and Delayed Assignment Submissions: Student and Faculty Perceptions of Late Point Policy and Grace within an Online Learning Environment. Online Learning, 24(3), 35–49. DOI:

Sharma, R., Jain, A., Gupta, N., Garg, S., Batta, M., & Dhir, S. (2016). Impact of self-assessment by students on their learning. International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research, 6(3), 226. DOI:

Surakarta, I. A. I. N., Nugroho, A., Haghegh, M., Cyprus, E. M. U. N., & Turkey. (2021). Emergency Remote Teaching amidst Global Pandemic: Voices of Indonesian EFL Teachers. VELES Voices of English Language Education Society, 5(1), 66–80. DOI:

Widyastuti, N., Riswandi, R., & Fitriawan, H. (2021). The development of advance organizer based distance learning in Chemistry bonding material. Journal of Education Technology, 5(2), 228–235. DOI:




How to Cite

Ni G.A Made Ari Dharma Pattni, Purnamika Utami , I. L. ., & Budiarta, L. G. R. (2023). AN An Investigation of Teachers’ Roles in Remote Teaching Context. International Journal of Language and Literature, 7(1), 1–11.