N.K.A Suwastini, W.G.S. Yukti


This study was a descriptive qualitative study aimed at analysing types of error and sources of error in the short biography text writings in English language teaching (ELT) context. The subject of this study was 11th Grade of Accounting Department Students of a Vocational High School in Singaraja in the academic year 2015/2016. The instruments in the study were researcher, tabulation table, and interview guide. The textual analysis design was used in this study to gather the data. The students’ errors were analysed according to surface strategy taxonomy by Dulay et al. (1982). This study revealed that misformation was the most frequent errors occurred in the students’ writings, followed by omission, addition, and misordering. Furthermore, the sources of error were identified according to four sources of error by Brown (2007). This study found that interlingual transfer was the main sources of students’ errors, followed by context of learning, interlingual transfer, and communication strategy. Related to these findings, the present study suggested that teachers pay more serious attention to students’ errors by comparing the students’ first language system and the target language system in order to avoid errors.


error analysis; short biography text; surface strategy taxonomy; sources of error

Full Text:



Abushihab, I. (2014). An analysis of grammatical errors in writing made by Turkish learners of English as a foreign language. International Journal of Linguistics. 6(4), 213-223. doi:10.5296/ijl.v6i4.6190

Agustien, H. I.R. & Emilia, E. (2014). Bahasa Inggris. Indonesia: Pusat Kurikulum dan Perbukuan, Balitbang, Kemdikbud.

Agustiyana, I. K. O. (2014). The analysis of grammatical cohesive devices in the eight grade students’ writing of SMP N 1 Singaraja. Thesis (Unpublished). S1. English Education Department, Undiksha.

Azar, B. S. (2002). Understanding and using English grammar (3rded.). NY: Person Education.

Bayinah, S. (2013). The grammatical error analysis on using the simple past tense in writing recount text (a case study at the first grade on MA Al – Khairiyah) (Skripsi, SyarifHidayatullah State Islamic University, Jakarta). Retrieved from

Berg, B. L. (2001). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences. USA: A Person Education Company.

Brown, H. D. (2007). Principles of language learning and teaching (5thed.). New York: Person Education.

Cholipah. (2014). An analysis of students’ error in writing recount text (a case study in the second grade students of SMP Trimulia Jakarta Selatan) (Skripsi, Universitas Islam Negeri, Jakarta). Retrieved from

Cohen, L. &Manion L., & Morrison K. (2007). Research method in education. New York: Routledge.

Corder, S. P. (1981). Error analysis and interlanguage. New York: Oxford University Press.

Davis, L., & McKay, S. (1996). Structure and strategies an introduction to academic writing. Hong Kong: Macmillan Education Australia PTY LTD.

Denzin, N. (1970). Sociological method: A sourcebook. New Brunswick: Transcation Publisher.

Derewianka, B. (1990). Exploring how texts work. Newtown: Primary English Teaching Association.

Dulay, H., Burt, M., &Krasen, S. (1982). Language two. New York: Oxford University Press.

Eastwood, J. (1992). Oxford practice grammar with answer(New ed. now with tests). China: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, R., &Barkhuizen, G. (2005). Analysing learner language. Cina: Oxford University Press.

Faisal, M., Mulya, K., &Syamsul, B.Y. (2016). Errors in EFL writing by junior high students in Indonesia. International Journal of Research Studies in Language Learning. 6 (1), 38-52. Doi: 10.5861/ijrsll.2016.1366

Foster, J. (2001). Effective writing skills for public relation. UK: Kogan Page.

Greenbaum, S. & Nelson G. (2002). An introduction to English grammar (2nded.). Malaysia: Person Education Limited.

Hermino, A. (2016). Asean economic community in the perspective of transformational leadership in school. International Journal of Education and Research, 4 (6), 401- 416. Retrieved from

Jabeen, A., Kazemian, B. &Mustafai, M.S. (2015). The role of error analysis in teaching and learning of second and foreign Language.Education and Linguistics Research 2377-1353, 1(2), 52-61. doi:10.5296/elr.v1i1.8189

Juwana, H. (2016). ASEAN economic community and its challenges for Indonesia: from the perspective of international trade law. OrasiIlmiah. Universitas Indonesia. Retrieved from

Kemendikbud. (2015). Silabus SMK - wajibkurikulum 2013.

Kemendikbud. (2015). Mata pelajaranbahasainggriswajib di SMP dan SMA/SMK. Republik Indonesia. Retrieved from

Subasini, M., &Kokilavani, B. (2013). Significant of grammar in technical English. International Journal of English Literature and Culture, 1(3), 56-58. Doi: 10.14662/IJELC2013.022

Maley, A. (2005). Writing with children. China: Oxford University Press.

Mardijono, J. J. (2003). Indonesian EFL advanced learners’ grammatical errors. a bilingual publication on the study of language and literature. 5 (1), 67-89.

Maxwell, J. A. (2005). Qualitative research design: an interactive approach. Cambridge University Press.

Muhamad, A. J., Shah, M. I. A., Ibrahim, E. H. E., Sarudin. I., Malik. F. A., &Ghni. R. A. (2013). Oral presentation errors of Malaysian students in an English for academic purposes (EAP) course. World Applied Sciences Journal, 21, 19-27. doi: 10.5829/idosi.wasj.2013.21.sltl.2133

Mustafidah, I. (2014). An analysis on students’ errors in understanding simple past tense and present perfect tense (A case study at the first graded students of SMK Dua Mei Ciputat) (Skripsi, State Islamic University SyarifHidayatullah, Jakarta). Retrieved from

PeraturanMenteriPendidikandanKebudayaan R.I. Nomor 70 Tahun 2013, tentangKerangkaDasardanStrukurKurikulum SMK-MK.

Phuket, P. R. N., & Othman, N. B. (2015). Understanding EFL students’ errors in writing. Journal of Education and Practice. 6, 99-106. Retrieved from

Ratminingsh, N. M. (2014). Teaching English as a foreign language 1 for the fourth semester students of English Education Department. Singaraja-Bali: Undiksha Press.

Rogers, H. (2005, p.1). Writing systems: a linguistic approach. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Siddiqui, F. (2014). Why effective communication skills are important for accounting professionals. Retrieved from

Silverman, D. (1993). Interpreting qualitative data. London: Sage.

Sukur, S. G. (2011). Top Toefl Grammar Strategy.Yogjakarta: JogjaBangkit Publisher.

Stroupe, R., & Kimura, K. (2015). Opportunities and challenges across ASEAN: Looking ahead to the ASEAN Economic Community. (R. Stroupe, & K. Kimura, Eds.) ASEAN Integration and the role of English language teaching, pp. 1-12.

Saad, M .A. H., &Sawalmeh, M.H.M. (2014). Error analysis in role-play presentations among less proficient L2 Malaysian learners. International Journal of English and Education. 3, Retrieved from

Shertzer, M. D. (1986). The element of grammar. USA: Pearson Education.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 International Journal of Language and Literature

Currently, International Journal of Language and Literature indexed by:

Crossref IJLL         

Creative Commons License
International Journal of Language and Literature is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.