Alternative Assessments in Online Learning during Covid-19 Pandemic: The Strenghths and Weaknesses

Ahmad Arifuddin, Turmudi Turmudi, Ummi Nur Rokhmah

Abstract


Currently, online learning becomes a new trend in the Indonesian education. But, the educators are not ready to adapt to online learning, especially in online learning assessments. This study aims to describe the alternative assessments in online learning that can be implemented at elementary education along with its advantages and disadvantages. This study employed a qualitative approach with the literature review method. Researchers collected a number of reputable national and international journal articles, textbooks, handbooks, regulations, and so on from the google scholar database, science direct, eric, and others related to research problems and objectives. The analysis of the literature review uses the critical appraisal method. The results of this study showed that online learning assessments that can be implemented in elementary education were formative and summative assessments. It included cognitive assessments, performance assessments, portfolios, writings and journals, self-assessment and peers-assessments. The use of online learning assessments has many advantages such as the availability to conduct tests on demand and at any time, provides direct feedback to users, the students’ quick access to the test results, and a more accurate measurement of student learning. However, online assessment systems also have several drawbacks, such as students who have low information technology (IT) skills might be disadvantaged. For this reason, in implementing online learning and assessment, teachers and students should master information and communication technology skills.

Keywords


assessments; online learning; elementary education

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abidah, A., Hidaayatullaah, H. N., Simamora, R. M., Fehabutar, D., & Mutakinati, L. (2020). The Impact of Covid-19 to Indonesian Education and Its Relation to the Philosophy of “Merdeka Belajar.” Studies in Philosophy of Science and Education, 1(1), 38–49. https://doi.org/10.46627/sipose.v1i1.9.

Abrami, P., & Barrett, H. (2005). Directions for research and development on electronic portfolios. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology/La Revue Canadienne de l’apprentissage et de La Technologie, 31(3). https://www.learntechlib.org/p/43165/.

Altınay, Z. (2017). Evaluating peer learning and assessment in online collaborative learning environments. Behaviour & Information Technology, 36(3), 312–320. https://doi.org/10.1080/0144929X.2016.1232752.

Asmuni, A. (2020). Problematika Pembelajaran Daring di Masa Pandemi Covid-19 dan Solusi Pemecahannya. Jurnal Paedagogy, 7(4), 281. https://doi.org/10.33394/jp.v7i4.2941.

Astini, N. K. S. (2020). Pemanfaatan Teknologi Informasi dalam Pembelajaran Tingkat Sekolah Dasar pada Masa Pandemi Covid-19. Lampuhyang, 11(2), 13–25. https://doi.org/10.47730/jurnallampuhyang.v11i2.194.

Barberà, E., & Ahumada, M. E. (2007). Assessment of Research Competences Using e-Portfolio. eLearning.

Bartlett, J. E., Reynolds, K. A., & Alexander, M. W. (2000). A tool for online learning. Journal of Online Learning, 11((3-4)), 22–24.

Benson, A. (2002). Using online learning to meet workforce demand: A case study of stakeholder influence. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 3(4), 443–452. https://www.learntechlib.org/p/95258/?nl=1.

Benson, A. D. (2003). Assessing participant learning in online environments. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 100, 69–78. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ772944.

Black, P., & William, D. (1998). Inside the black box: Raising standards through classroom assessment. Phi Delta Kappan, 80(2), 139–148. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F003172171009200119.

Carliner, S. (2004). An overview of online learning. Human Resource Development.

Cassady, J. C., & Gridley, B. E. (2005). The effects of online formative and summative assessment on test anxiety and performance. The Journal of Technology, Learning and Assessment, 4(1). https://ejournals.bc.edu/index.php/jtla/article/view/1648.

Corcoran, C. A., Dershimer, E. L., & Tichenor, M. S. (2004). A teacher’s guide to alternative assessment: Taking the first steps. The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 77(5), 213–218. https://doi.org/10.3200/TCHS.77.5.213-218.

De Mauro, A., Greco, M., Grimaldi, M., & Ritala, P. (2018). Human resources for Big Data professions: A systematic classification of job roles and required skill sets. Information Processing and Management, 54(5), 807–817. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ipm.2017.05.004.

Garbe, A., Ogurlu, U., Logan, N., & Cook, P. (2020). Parents’ experiences with remote education during COVID-19 school closures. American Journal of Qualitative Research, 4(3), 45–65. https://doi.org/10.29333/ajqr/8471.

Gaytan, J., & McEwen, B. C. (2007). Effective online instructional and assessment strategies. The American Journal of Distance Education, 21(3), 117–132. https://doi.org/10.1080/08923640701341653.

Gikandi, J. W., Morrow, D., & Davis, N. E. (2011). Online formative assessment in higher education: A review of the literature. Computers & Education, 57(4), 2333–2351. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.06.004.

Graff, M. (2003). Cognitive style and attitudes towards using online learning and assessment methods. Electronic Journal of E-Learning, 1(1), 21–28. https://www.academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/1810.

Himawan, H. (2011). Analisa dan Perancangan Sistem Pembelajaran Online Menggunakan Metode Parsing. Telematika: Jurnal Informatika Dan Teknologi Informasi, 7(2). http://jurnal.upnyk.ac.id/index.php/telematika/article/view/421.

Jonassen, D. H., Reeves, T. C., Hong, N., Harvey, D., & Peters, K. (1997). Concept mapping as cognitive learning and assessment tools. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 8(3), 289. https://www.proquest.com/openview/2443d7abc0dd854f0fcd3ac441ac7992.

Kearns, L. R. (2012). Student assessment in online learning: Challenges and effective practices. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 8(3), 198. http://jolt.merlot.org/vol8no3/kearns_0912.pdf.

Khusniyah, N., & Hakim, L. (2019). Efektivitas Pembelajaran Berbasis Daring: Sebuah Bukti Pada Pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris. Jurnal Tatsqif, 17(1), 19–33. https://doi.org/10.20414/jtq.v17i1.667.

Klinkenberg, S. (2017). The Role of Formative Assessment in a Blended Learning Course. International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference, 63–71. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57744-9_6.

Knight, M. E., & Gallaro, D. (1994). Portfolio assessment: Applications of portfolio analysis. Univ Pr of Amer.

Linn, R. L., Baker, E. L., & Dunbar, S. B. (1991). Complex, performance-based assessment: Expectations and validation criteria. Educational Researcher, 20(8), 15–21. https://doi.org/10.3102%2F0013189X020008015.

Markova, T., Glazkova, I., & Zaborova, E. (2017). Quality issues of online distance learning. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 237, 685–691. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2017.02.043.

Mateo, J., & Sangrà, A. (2017). Designing online learning assessment through alternative approaches: facing the concerns. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, 10(2). https://old.eurodl.org/?p=archives&sp=full&year=2007&halfyear=i&abstract=294.

Merluzzi, T. V., Glass, C. R., & M., G. (1986). Cognitive Assessment. University Press.

Moore, J. L., Dickson-Deane, C., & Galyen, K. (2011). (2011). e-Learning, online learning, and distance learning environments: Are they the same? The Internet and Higher Education, 14(2), 129–135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2010.10.001.

Nassaji, H. (2015). Qualitative and descriptive research : Data type versus data analysis. Language Teaching Research, 19(2), 129–132. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168815572747.

Ni, A. Y. (2013). Comparing the effectiveness of classroom and online learning: Teaching research methods. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 19(2), 199–215. https://doi.org/10.1080/15236803.2013.12001730.

Nurhayati, S., Wicaksono, M. F., Lubis, R., Rahmatya, M. D., & Hidayat, H. (2020). Peningkatan Kemampuan Guru Dalam Pembelajaran Daring Dengan Memanfaatkan Teknologi Informasi Bagi Guru SMA Negeri 5 Cimahi Bandung. Indonesian Community Service and Empowerment (IComSE), 1(2), 70–76. https://doi.org/10.34010/icomse.v1i2.3878.

Ogange, B., Agak, J., Okelo, K., & Kiprotich, P. (2018). Student perceptions of the effectiveness of formative assessment in an online learning environment. Open Praxis, 10(1), 29–39. https://search.informit.org/doi/10.3316/informit.42366925850441.

Perera-Diltz, D. M., & Moe, J. L. (2014). Formative and summative assessment in online education. Journal of Research in Innovative Teaching, 7(1). https://digitalcommons.odu.edu/chs_pubs/37/.

Pezzino, M. (2018). Online assessment, adaptive feedback and the importance of visual learning for students. The advantages, with a few caveats, of using MapleTA. International Review of Economics Education, 28, 11–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iree.2018.03.002.

Purwanto, A., Pramono, R., Asbari, M., Hyun, C., Wijayanti, L., & Putri, R. (2020). Studi Eksploratif Dampak Pandemi COVID-19 Terhadap Proses Pembelajaran Online di Sekolah Dasar. EduPsyCouns: Journal of Education, Psychology and Counseling, 2(1), 1–12. https://ummaspul.e-journal.id/Edupsycouns/article/view/397.

Reeves, T. C. (2000). Alternative assessment approaches for online learning environments in higher education. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 23(1), 101–111. https://doi.org/10.2190%2FGYMQ-78FA-WMTX-J06C.

Sadikin, A., & Hamidah, A. (2020). Pembelajaran Daring di Tengah Wabah Covid-19. Biodik, 6(2), 109–119. https://doi.org/10.22437/bio.v6i2.9759.

Sadler, D. R. (2010). Beyond feedback: Developing student capability in complex appraisal. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 35(5), 535–550. https://doi.org/10.1080/02602930903541015.

Sari, E. R. (2012). Online learning community: a case study of teacher professional development in Indonesia. Intercultural Education, 23(1), 63–72. https://doi.org/DOI: 10.1080/14675986.2012.664755.

Sattler, J. M. (2008). Resource guide to accompany assessment of children: Cognitive foundations. JM Sattler.

Soffer, T., Kahan, T., & Livne, E. (2017). E-assessment of online academic courses via students’ activities and perceptions. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 54, 83–93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stueduc.2016.10.001.

Stenmark, J. K. (1989). Assessment alternatives in mathematics: An overview of assessment techniques that promote learning. Equals Publications.

Stiggins, R., & Chappuis, J. (2005). Using student-involved classroom assessment to close achievement gaps. Theory into Practice, 44(1), 11–18. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15430421tip4401_3.

Sugiyono. (2018). Metode Peneiltian Kuantitatif, Kualitatif dan R&D. Alfabeta Bandung.

Van de Walle, J. A., Karp, K. S., & Bay-Williams, J. M. (2013). Elementary and middle school mathematics: Teaching developmentally. Pearson Education, Inc.

Vonderwell, S., Liang, X., & Alderman, K. (2007). Asynchronous discussions and assessment in online learning. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 39(3), 309–328. https://doi.org/10.1080/15391523.2007.10782485.

Zaborova, E. N., & Markova, T. L. (2016, February). Students as social actors of virtual educational environment. In Actual Issues of Sociology of Culture, Education, Youth and Management: Materials of the All-Russian Scientific Conference with international participation (pp. 392-397).

Zainal, N. H. (2020). Tantangan Kebijakan Pembelajaran Jarak Jauh Di Era Pandemi COVID 19. Jurnal Pencerahan, 14(2), 133–151. http://www.jurnalpencerahan.org/index.php/jp/article/view/31.

Zakrzewski, S., & Bull, J. (1998). The mass implementation and evaluation of computer‐based assessments. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 23(2), 141–152. https://doi.org/10.1080/0260293980230203.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.23887/ijee.v5i2.33532

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 758 times
PDF file view : 111 times

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.







IJEE indexed by:

Crossref  

Creative Commons License

IJEE is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.