The Impact of Metacognition on Elementary School Students’ Problem-Solving Skills in Science Learning


  • Fauziana Fauziana IAIN Lhokseumawe
  • Sarah Fazilla IAIN Lhokseumawe



Problem Solving Skills, Metacognition, Science Learning


The concept of education at the basic education level plays an important role in character building and students' cognitive, affective, and psychomotor development. Through science learning, it is hoped that students will not only know the concept, but are directed to be able to solve problems in the surrounding environment. However, the facts show that students in elementary schools still have difficulty solving analytical problems in science learning. This study aims to analyze the effect of metacognition on the ability to solve science problems in fifth grade elementary school students. The method used in this study is a quantitative method. The sample in this study were 50 grade 5 students, who were selected using a random sampling technique. Data was collected using an instrument in the form of a questionnaire. The data analysis method used is simple linear regression analysis. The results showed that the value of tcount was greater than ttable, namely 3,086 > 2,312 at a significance level of = 0.05. Thus, it can be concluded that there is a significant effect of metacognition on the ability to solve science problems. The implications of the results of this study are expected to be used as evaluation material and input for teachers in choosing and using appropriate learning strategies so as to improve problem-solving skills in science learning at the elementary school level.

Author Biographies

Fauziana Fauziana, IAIN Lhokseumawe

Pendidikan Guru Madrasah Ibtidaiyah

Sarah Fazilla, IAIN Lhokseumawe

Pendidikan Guru Madrasah Ibtidaiyah


Akamatsu, D., Nakaya, M., & Koizumi, R. (2019). Effects of metacognitive strategies on the self-regulated learning process: The mediating effects of self-efficacy. Behavioral Sciences, 9(12), 128.

Akben, N. (2020). Effects of the Problem-Posing Approach on Students’ Problem Solving Skills and Metacognitive Awareness in Science Education. Research in Science Education, 50(3), 1143–1165.

Ali, S. S. (2019). Problem Based Learning: A Student-Centered Approach. English Language Teaching, 12(5), 73.

Anthonysamy, L. (2021). The use of metacognitive strategies for undisrupted online learning: Preparing university students in the age of pandemic. Education and Information Technologies, 26(6), 6881–6899.

Arianto, F., Mustaji, & Bachri, B. S. (2021). Metacognitive Strategy and Science Problem-Solving Abilities in Elementary School Students. International Journal of Social Science and Human Research, 04(09), 2571–2574.

Asy’ari, M., Ikhsan, M., & Muhali. (2019). The effectiveness of inquiry learning model in improving prospective teachers’ metacognition knowledge and metacognition awareness. International Journal of Instruction, 12(2), 455–470.

Asy’ari, M., Mirawati, B., Zubaidah, S., & Mahanal, S. (2022). Students’ Metacognitive Awareness in Natural Science Learning: An Overview by Gender. Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan IPA, 8(1), 67–72.

Avargil, S., Lavi, R., & Dori, Y. J. (2018). Students’ Metacognition and Metacognitive Strategies in Science Education.

Bahar, M., & Aksüt, P. (2020). Investigation on the effects of activity-based science teaching practices in the acquisition of problem solving skills for 5-6 year old pre-school children. Journal of Turkish Science Education, 17(1), 22–39.

Camellia, G. F., Hartono, & Ridlo, S. (2021). The development of HOTS-oriented science supplement book to improve problem solving ability of vocational school students. Journal of Innovative Science Education, 10(1), 314–318.

Cofré, H., Núñez, P., Santibáñez, D., Pavez, J. M., Valencia, M., & Vergara, C. (2019). A Critical Review of Students’ and Teachers’ Understandings of Nature of Science. Science and Education, 28(3–5), 205–248.

Dörr, L., & Perels, F. (2019). Improving metacognitive abilities as an important prerequisite for self-regulated learning in preschool children. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 11(5), 449–459.

Elita, G. S., Habibi, M., Putra, A., & Ulandari, N. (2019). Pengaruh Pembelajaran Problem Based Learning dengan Pendekatan Metakognisi terhadap Kemampuan Pemecahan Masalah Matematis. Mosharafa: Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika, 8(3), 447–458.

Güner, P., & Erbay, H. N. (2021). Metacognitive Skills and Problem-Solving. International Journal of Research in Education and Science, June, 715–734.

Hadi, S., & Novaliyosi. (2019). TIMSS Indonesia (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study). Prosiding Seminar Nasional & Call For Papers Program Studi Magister Pendidikan Matematika Universitas Siliwangi, 562–569.

Hastuti, I. D., Surahmat, Sutarto, & Dafik. (2020). Development of collaborative inquiry-based learning model to improve elementary school students’ metacognitive ability. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research, 9(2), 1240–1247.

Hendriani, A., Tri Herlambang, Y., Rohayati, E., Ernalis, & Setiawan, D. (2021). Critical Multiliteration: An Alternative Learning Model for Developing Metacognition Skills in Elementary School Students. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1764(1).

Hobri, Ummah, I. K., Yuliati, N., & Dafik. (2020). The effect of jumping task based on creative problem solving on students’ problem solving ability. International Journal of Instruction, 13(1), 387–406.

Jin, Q., & Kim, M. (2018). Metacognitive Regulation During Elementary Students’ Collaborative Group Work. Interchange, 49(2), 263–281.

Kalemkus, J., Bayraktar, Ş., & Çiftçi, S. (2021). Comparative Effects of Argumentation and Laboratory Experiments on Metacognition, Attitudes, and Science Process Skills of Primary School Children. Journal of Science Learning, 4(2).

Khairani, S., Suyanti, R. D., & Saragi, D. (2020). The Influence of Problem Based Learning (PBL) Model Collaborative and Learning Motivation Based on Students’ Critical Thinking Ability Science Subjects in Class V State Elementary School 105390 Island Image. Budapest International Research and Critics in Linguistics and Education (BirLE) Journal, 3(3), 1581–1590.

Kholid, M. N., Sa’dijah, C., Hidayanto, E., & Permadi, H. (2020). How are students’ reflective thinking for problem solving? Journal for the Education of Gifted Young Scientists, 8(3), 1135–1146.

Latifah, N., Fauzia, U., & Kelana, J. B. (2020). Natural Science Problem Solving in Elementary School Students Using the Project Based Learning (PjBL) Model. Jurnal Ilmiah Sekolah Dasar, 4(4), 596–603.

Lestari, W., Pratama, L. D., & Jailani, J. (2019). Metacognitive Skills in Mathematics Problem Solving. Jurnal Daya Matematis, 6(3), 286.

Lobczowski, N. G., Lyons, K., Greene, J. A., & McLaughlin, J. E. (2021). Socially shared metacognition in a project-based learning environment: A comparative case study. Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, 30(PA), 100543.

Long, N. N., & Khoi, B. H. (2020). The Intention to Study Using Zoom During the SARSCoV-2 Pandemic. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 15(21), 195–216.

Muhid, A., Amalia, E. R., Hilaliyah, H., Budiana, N., & Wajdi, M. B. N. (2020). The effect of metacognitive strategies implementation on students’ reading comprehension achievement. International Journal of Instruction, 13(2), 847–862.

Muncer, G., Higham, P. A., Gosling, C. J., Cortese, S., Wood-Downie, H., & Hadwin, J. A. (2022).. A Meta-Analysis Investigating the Association Between Metacognition and Math Performance in Adolescence. In Educational Psychology Review (Vol. 34, Issue 1). Educational Psychology Review.

Nisa, K., Triwoelandari, R., & Kosim, A. M. (2018). Pengaruh Strategi Metakognitif Terhadap Self-Efficacy Pada Pembelajaran Sains Kelas V SD. Jurnal Mitra Pendidikan, 2(10), 1063–1077.

Nunaki, J. H., Damopolii, I., Kandowangko, N. Y., & Nusantari, E. (2019). The effectiveness of inquiry-based learning to train the students’ metacognitive skills based on gender differences. International Journal of Instruction, 12(2), 505–516.

Pratiwi, B., & Puspito Hapsari, K. (2020). Analisis Kemampuan Berpikir Tingkat Tinggi Melalui Pemanfaatan YouTube Sebagai Media Pembelajaran Bahasa Indonesia. Jurnal Ilmiah Sekolah Dasar, 4(2), 282.

Ramadhanti, D., Ghazali, A. S., Hasanah, M., & Harsiati, T. (2019). Students’ metacognitive weaknesses in academic writing: A preliminary research. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 14(11), 41–57.

Salehi, S., Wang, K. D., Toorawa, R., & Wieman, C. (2020). Can majoring in computer science improve general problem-solving skills? Annual Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education, ITiCSE, 156–161.

Sevgi, S., & Karakaya, M. (2020). Investigation Of Metacognition Awareness Levels And Problem Solving Skills Of Middle School Students. International Online Journal of Primary Education, 9(2), 260–270.

Siagian, M. V, Saragih, S., & Sinaga, B. (2019). Development of Learning Materials Based on Realistic Mathematics Education Approach to Improve Students’ Mathematical Problem Solving Ability and Self-Efficacy. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 14(2), 331–340.

Soeharto, Csapó, B., Sarimanah, E., Dewi, F. I., & Sabri, T. (2019). A review of students’ common misconceptions in science and their diagnostic assessment tools. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 8(2), 247–266.

Sukenti, D., Tambak, S., & Charlina. (2020). Developing indonesian language learning assessments: Strengthening the personal competence and islamic psychosocial of teachers. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, 9(4), 1079–1087.

Sulaiman, T., Rahim, S. S. A., Yan, W. K., & Subramaniam, P. (2021). Primary science teachers’ perspectives about metacognition in science teaching. European Journal of Educational Research, 10(1), 75–84.

Sutarto, Dwi Hastuti, I., Fuster-Guillén, D., Palacios Garay, J. P., Hernández, R. M., & Namaziandost, E. (2022). The Effect of Problem-Based Learning on Metacognitive Ability in the Conjecturing Process of Junior High School Students. Education Research International, 2022, 1–10.

Tika, I. N., & Agustiana, I. G. A. T. (2021). The Effect of a Blended Learning Project Based Learning Model on Scientific Attitudes and Science Learning Outcomes. Jurnal Ilmiah Sekolah Dasar, 5(4), 557.

Utama, E. G. (2019). Pengaruh Model Pembelajaran POE (Predict, Observe and Explain) Terhadap Keterampilan Proses Sains Siswa SD Kelas V ditinjau dari Keterampilan Metakognitif. JPDI (Jurnal Pendidikan Dasar Indonesia), 4(2), 46.

van Loon, M. H., Bayard, N. S., Steiner, M., & Roebers, C. M. (2021). Connecting teachers’ classroom instructions with children’s metacognition and learning in elementary school. Metacognition and Learning, 16(3), 623–650.

Yasa, I. K. D., Pudjawan, K., & Agustiana, I. G. A. T. (2020). Peningkatan Efikasi Diri Siswa Pada Mata Pelajaran IPA Kelas IV SD Melalui Model Pembelajaran Numbered Head Together. Mimbar PGSD Undiksha, 8(3), 330–341.

Yayuk, E., Purwanto, As’Ari, A. R., & Subanji. (2020). Primary school students’ creative thinking skills in mathematics problem solving. European Journal of Educational Research, 9(3), 1281–1295.

Yüksel, M., Üniversitesi, M., Bölümü, B., Türkiye, İ. /, Üniversitesi, M. S., Harp Okulu, H., & Bilgisi Öz, M. (2021). The Research of The Relationship Between The Problem Solving Skills & Metacognitive Awareness of Middle School Students and The Social Emotional Learning. Cukurova Universitesi Egitim Fakultesi Dergise, 487–506.




How to Cite

Fauziana, F., & Fazilla, S. (2022). The Impact of Metacognition on Elementary School Students’ Problem-Solving Skills in Science Learning. Jurnal Ilmiah Sekolah Dasar, 6(2), 278–286.