COVID-19 Pandemic: Its Impact on Learning Motivation (The Fluctuation During Three Different Phases)

Authors

  • Lina Natalya Fakultas Psikologi, Universitas Surabaya
  • Steven Victoria Halim Pusat Informasi Obat dan Layanan Kefarmasian (PIOLK), Fakultas Farmasi, Universitas Surabaya

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.23887/jpp.v54i3.37535

Keywords:

academic motivation, online learning, learning from home

Abstract

Education is a critical component that cannot be separated from an individual’s life. One of many important factors that could support, encourage, and give zeal in the learning process is motivation. The COVID-19 pandemic nowadays indirectly triggers a rapid and drastic change in the learning process, one of them being lecture that must be held online. This repeated cross-sectional research aimed to give a description regarding the fluctuation of students’ academic motivation level before, in the beginning, and until one-year after online learning. The data used in this study are primary and secondary data which are collected gradually and analyzed using Summary Independent Sample T-Test. The result of this research showed no significant differences in academic motivation before COVID-19 and during the early days of Learning From Home (µbefore = 4.777; µbeginning = 4.808; sig = 0.432), nevertheless, a significant decrease is observable one year after the online learning (µnow = 4.345; sigbefore-now = <0.001; sigbeginning-now = <0.001). The decrease in students’ academic motivation is certainly a crucial problem that is prioritized to be resolved. Hence, lecturers need to adapt with this change and create learning innovation in order to trigger students’ learning motivation.

References

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Amiti, F. (2020). Synchronous and asynchronous E-learning. European Journal of Open Education and E-Learning Studies, 5(2), 60–70. https://doi.org/10.46827/ejoe.v5i2.3313.

Anas, M., & Aryani, F. (2014). Motivasi Belajar Mahasiswa. Penelitian Pendidikan INSANI, 16(1), 41–46. https://doi.org/10.26858/ijes.v16i1.3973.

Anuar, S., Nizar, N., & Ismail, M. A. (2021). The Impact of Using Augmented Reality as Teaching Material on Students’ Motivation. Asian Journal of Vocational Education And Humanities, 2(1). https://doi.org/10.53797/ajvah.v2i1.1.2021.

Ardhaoui, K., Lemos, M. S., & Silva, S. (2021). Effects of new teaching approaches on motivation and achievement in higher education applied chemistry courses: A case study in Tunisia. Education for Chemical Engineers, 36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ece.2021.05.004.

Argaheni, N. B. (2020). Sistematik Review: Dampak Perkuliahan Daring Saat Pandemi COVID-19 Terhadap Mahasiswa Indonesia. PLACENTUM: Jurnal Ilmiah Kesehatan Dan Aplikasinya, 8(2), 99. https://doi.org/10.20961/placentum.v8i2.43008.

Asrial, Syahrial, Maison, Kurniawan, D. A., & Piyana, S. O. (2020). Ethnoconstructivism E-Module to Improve Perception, Interest, and Motivation of Students in Class V Elementary School. JPI (Jurnal Pendidikan Indonesia), 9(1), 30–41. https://doi.org/10.23887/jpi-undiksha.v9i1.19222.

Baber, H. (2021). Modelling the acceptance of e-learning during the pandemic of COVID-19-A study of South Korea. The International Journal of Management Education, 19(2). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijme.2021.100503.

Browning, M. H. E. M., Larson, L. R., Sharaievska, I., Rigolon, A., McAnirlin, O., Mullenbach, L., Cloutier, S., Vu, T. M., Thomsen, J., Reigner, N., Metcalf, E. C., D’Antonio, A., Helbich, M., Bratman, G. N., & Alvarez, H. O. (2021). Psychological impacts from COVID-19 among university students: Risk factors across seven states in the United States. PloS One, 16(1), e0245327. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0245327.

Calafato, R. (2020). Learning Arabic in Scandinavia: Motivation, metacognition, and autonomy. Lingua, 246, 102943. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2020.102943.

Chaturvedi, K., Vishwakarma, D. K., & Singh, N. (2021). COVID-19 and its impact on education, social life and mental health of students: A survey. Children and Youth Services Review, 121, 105866. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105866.

Chua, Y. P., & Don, Z. M. (2013). Effects of computer-based educational achievement test on test performance and test takers’ motivation. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(5). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.03.008.

Dong, Y., Xu, C., Chai, C. S., & Zhai, X. (2020). Exploring the Structural Relationship Among Teachers’ Technostress, Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK), Computer Self-efficacy and School Support. Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 29(2), 147–157. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40299-019-00461-5.

Fitria, T. N. (2020). Teaching English through Online Learning System during Covid-19 Pandemic. Pedagogy: Journal of English Language Teaching, 8(2), 138–148. https://doi.org/10.32332/pedagogy.v8i2.

Fitriyani, Y., Fauzi, I., & Sari, M. Z. (2020). Motivasi Belajar Mahasiswa Pada Pembelajaran Daring Selama Pandemik Covid-19. Profesi Pendidikan Dasar, 7(1), 121–132. https://doi.org/10.23917/ppd.v7i1.10973

Guay, F., Chanal, J., Ratelle, C. F., Marsh, H., Larose, S., & Boivin, M. (2010). Intrinsic, identified, and controlled types of motivation for school subjects in young elementary school children. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(4), 711–735. https://doi.org/10.1348/000709910X499084.

Gündoğmuş, H. D. (2018). Self-efficacy of teacher candidates for teaching first reading and writing. Academic Journals, 13(6), 224–229. https://doi.org/10.5897/ERR2018.3486.

Guswara, A. M. (2020). The Contribution of Google Classroom Application and Motivation to The Learning Outcomes of Web Programming. Educational Technology, 4(4), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.23887/jet.v4i4.29896.

Hazrati-Viari, A., Rad, A. T., & Torabi, S. S. (2012). The effect of personality traits on academic performance: The mediating role of academic motivation. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 32, 367–371. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.01.055.

Hensley, L. C. (2014). Reconsidering active procrastination: Relations to motivation and achievement in college anatomy. Learning and Individual Differences, 36, 157–164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2014.10.012.

Hwang, I. H., Chang, C. C., Wang, H. L., Tsai, S. J., & Chen, T. Y. (2011). Mediating effects of computer self-efficacy between learning motivation and learning achievement. Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing, 109, 67–73. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-24772-9_10.

Jogezai, N. A., Baloch, F. A., Jaffar, M., Shah, T., Khilji, G. K., & Bashir, S. (2021). Teachers’ attitudes towards social media (SM) use in online learning amid the COVID-19 pandemic: the effects of SM use by teachers and religious scholars during physical distancing. Heliyon, 7(4). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06781.

Kim, G., & Gurvitch, R. (2020). Online Education Research Adopting the Community of Inquiry Framework: A Systematic Review. Quest, 72(4), 395–409. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2020.1761843.

Lasagabaster, D. (2017). Language Learning Motivation and Language Attitudes in Multilingual Spain From an International Perspective. The Modern Language Journal, 101(3), 583–596. https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12414.

Liu, I.-F. (2020). The impact of extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation, and social self-efficacy on English competition participation intentions of pre-college learners: Differences between high school and vocational students in Taiwan. Learning and Motivation, 72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lmot.2020.101675.

Maatuk, A. M., Elberkawi, E. K., Aljawarneh, S., Rashaideh, H., & Alharbi, H. (2021). The COVID-19 Pandemic and E-learning: Challenges and Opportunities from the Perspective of Students and Instructors. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 1–18. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12528-021-09274-2.

Meini, I. N. (2019). Pengaruh Media Kahoot dan Motivasi Belajar Terhadap Hasil Belajar Siswa. Journal Information Engineering and Educational Technology, 3(1), 46–50. https://journal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/jieet/article/view/5086.

Meşe, E., & Sevilen, Ç. (2021). Factors influencing EFL students’ motivation in online learning: A qualitative case study. Journal of Educational Technology & Online Learning, 4(1), 11–22. https://doi.org/10.31681/ jetol.817680.

Putra, R. W. P. (2021). Improving the Students’ Motivation in Learning English through Google Meet during the Online Learning. English Learning Innovation, 2(1), 35–42. https://doi.org/10.22219/englie.v2i1.14605.

Rhim, H. C., & Han, H. (2020). Teaching online: foundational concepts of online learning and practical guidelines. Korean Journal of Medical Education, 32(3), 175–183. https://doi.org/10.3946/kjme.2020.171.

Saito, K., Dewaele, J.-M., Abe, M., & In’nami, Y. (2018). Motivation, Emotion, Learning Experience, and Second Language Comprehensibility Development in Classroom Settings: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Study. Language Learning, 68(3), 709–743. https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12297.

Simamora, R. M. (2020). The Challenges of Online Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Essay Analysis of Performing Arts Education Students. Studies in Learning and Teaching, 1(2), 86–103. https://doi.org/10.46627/silet.v1i2.38.

Sun, J. C. Y., & Rueda, R. (2012). Situational interest, computer self-efficacy and self-regulation: Their impact on student engagement in distance education. British Journal of Educational Technology, 43(2), 191–204. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2010.01157.x.

Supriyanto, A., Hartini, S., Irdasari, W. N., Miftahul, A., Oktapiana, S., & Mumpuni, S. D. (2020). Teacher professional quality: Counselling services with technology in Pandemic Covid-19. Counsellia: Jurnal Bimbingan Dan Konseling, 10(2), 176. https://doi.org/10.25273/counsellia.v10i2.7768.

Tan, C. (2021). The impact of COVID-19 on student motivation, community of inquiry and learning performance. Asian Education and Development Studies, 10(2), 308–321. https://doi.org/10.1108/AEDS-05-2020-0084.

Tse, W. S., Choi, L. Y. A., & Tang, W. S. (2019). Effects of video-based flipped class instruction on subject reading motivation. British Journal of Educational Technology, 50(1), 385–398. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12569.

Tseng, H., Yi, X., & Yeh, H. T. (2019). Learning-related soft skills among online business students in higher education: Grade level and managerial role differences in self-regulation, motivation, and social skill. Computers in Human Behavior, 95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2018.11.035.

Vrieling, E. M., Bastiaens, T. J., & Stijnen, S. (2012). Effects of increased self-regulated learning opportunities on student teachers’ metacognitive and motivational development. International Journal of Educational Research, 53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2012.03.014.

Wang, A. I., & Tahir, R. (2020). The effect of using Kahoot! for learning – A literature review. Computers and Education, 149(January), 103818. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2020.103818.

Waqar, S., Shafiq, S., & Hasan, S. (2016). Impact of Procrastination and Academic Motivation on Academic Self-efficacy among University Students. IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS, 21(6), 7–13. https://doi.org/10.9790/0837-2106040713.

Yu, Z. (2021). The effects of gender, educational level, and personality on online learning outcomes during the COVID‑19 pandemic. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 18(1), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41239-021-00252-3.

Yulia. (2020). Online Learning to Prevent the Spread of Pandemic Corona Virus in Indonesia. ETERNAL (English Teaching Journal), 11(1). https://doi.org/10.26877/eternal.v11i1.6068.

Yustina, Syafii, W., & Vebrianto, R. (2020). The effects of blended learning and project-based learning on pre-service biology teachers’ creative thinking skills through online learning in the COVID-19 pandemic. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 9(3), 408–420. https://doi.org/10.15294/jpii.v9i3.24706.

Zhu, M., Bonk, C. J., & Doo, M. Y. (2020). Self-directed learning in MOOCs: Exploring the relationships among motivation, self-monitoring, and self-management. Educational Technology Research and Development, 68(5), 2073–2093. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-020-09747-8.

Albashtawi, A. H., & Al Bataineh, K. B. (2020). The effectiveness of google classroom among EFL students in Jordan: An innovative teaching and learning online platform. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 15(11), 78–88. https://doi.org/10.3991/IJET.V15I11.12865.

Amiti, F. (2020). Synchronous and asynchronous E-learning. European Journal of Open Education and E-Learning Studies, 5(2), 60–70. https://doi.org/10.46827/ejoe.v5i2.3313.

Anas, M., & Aryani, F. (2014). Motivasi Belajar Mahasiswa. Penelitian Pendidikan INSANI, 16(1), 41–46. https://doi.org/10.26858/ijes.v16i1.3973.

Anuar, S., Nizar, N., & Ismail, M. A. (2021). The Impact of Using Augmented Reality as Teaching Material on Students’ Motivation. Asian Journal of Vocational Education And Humanities, 2(1). https://doi.org/10.53797/ajvah.v2i1.1.2021.

Ardhaoui, K., Lemos, M. S., & Silva, S. (2021). Effects of new teaching approaches on motivation and achievement in higher education applied chemistry courses: A case study in Tunisia. Education for Chemical Engineers, 36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ece.2021.05.004.

Argaheni, N. B. (2020). Sistematik Review: Dampak Perkuliahan Daring Saat Pandemi COVID-19 Terhadap Mahasiswa Indonesia. PLACENTUM: Jurnal Ilmiah Kesehatan Dan Aplikasinya, 8(2), 99. https://doi.org/10.20961/placentum.v8i2.43008.

Asrial, Syahrial, Maison, Kurniawan, D. A., & Piyana, S. O. (2020). Ethnoconstructivism E-Module to Improve Perception, Interest, and Motivation of Students in Class V Elementary School. JPI (Jurnal Pendidikan Indonesia), 9(1), 30–41. https://doi.org/10.23887/jpi-undiksha.v9i1.19222.

Baber, H. (2021). Modelling the acceptance of e-learning during the pandemic of COVID-19-A study of South Korea. The International Journal of Management Education, 19(2). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijme.2021.100503.

Browning, M. H. E. M., Larson, L. R., Sharaievska, I., Rigolon, A., McAnirlin, O., Mullenbach, L., Cloutier, S., Vu, T. M., Thomsen, J., Reigner, N., Metcalf, E. C., D’Antonio, A., Helbich, M., Bratman, G. N., & Alvarez, H. O. (2021). Psychological impacts from COVID-19 among university students: Risk factors across seven states in the United States. PloS One, 16(1), e0245327. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0245327.

Calafato, R. (2020). Learning Arabic in Scandinavia: Motivation, metacognition, and autonomy. Lingua, 246, 102943. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2020.102943.

Chaturvedi, K., Vishwakarma, D. K., & Singh, N. (2021). COVID-19 and its impact on education, social life and mental health of students: A survey. Children and Youth Services Review, 121, 105866. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105866.

Chua, Y. P., & Don, Z. M. (2013). Effects of computer-based educational achievement test on test performance and test takers’ motivation. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(5). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.03.008.

Dong, Y., Xu, C., Chai, C. S., & Zhai, X. (2020). Exploring the Structural Relationship Among Teachers’ Technostress, Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK), Computer Self-efficacy and School Support. Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 29(2), 147–157. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40299-019-00461-5.

Fitria, T. N. (2020). Teaching English through Online Learning System during Covid-19 Pandemic. Pedagogy: Journal of English Language Teaching, 8(2), 138–148. https://doi.org/10.32332/pedagogy.v8i2.

Fitriyani, Y., Fauzi, I., & Sari, M. Z. (2020). Motivasi Belajar Mahasiswa Pada Pembelajaran Daring Selama Pandemik Covid-19. Profesi Pendidikan Dasar, 7(1), 121–132. https://doi.org/10.23917/ppd.v7i1.10973.

Guay, F., Chanal, J., Ratelle, C. F., Marsh, H., Larose, S., & Boivin, M. (2010). Intrinsic, identified, and controlled types of motivation for school subjects in young elementary school children. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(4), 711–735. https://doi.org/10.1348/000709910X499084.

Gündoğmuş, H. D. (2018). Self-efficacy of teacher candidates for teaching first reading and writing. Academic Journals, 13(6), 224–229. https://doi.org/10.5897/ERR2018.3486.

Guswara, A. M. (2020). The Contribution of Google Classroom Application and Motivation to The Learning Outcomes of Web Programming. Educational Technology, 4(4), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.23887/jet.v4i4.29896.

Hazrati-Viari, A., Rad, A. T., & Torabi, S. S. (2012). The effect of personality traits on academic performance: The mediating role of academic motivation. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 32, 367–371. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.01.055.

Hensley, L. C. (2014). Reconsidering active procrastination: Relations to motivation and achievement in college anatomy. Learning and Individual Differences, 36, 157–164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2014.10.012.

Hwang, I. H., Chang, C. C., Wang, H. L., Tsai, S. J., & Chen, T. Y. (2011). Mediating effects of computer self-efficacy between learning motivation and learning achievement. Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing, 109, 67–73. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-24772-9_10.

Jogezai, N. A., Baloch, F. A., Jaffar, M., Shah, T., Khilji, G. K., & Bashir, S. (2021). Teachers’ attitudes towards social media (SM) use in online learning amid the COVID-19 pandemic: the effects of SM use by teachers and religious scholars during physical distancing. Heliyon, 7(4). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06781.

Kim, G., & Gurvitch, R. (2020). Online Education Research Adopting the Community of Inquiry Framework: A Systematic Review. Quest, 72(4), 395–409. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2020.1761843.

Lasagabaster, D. (2017). Language Learning Motivation and Language Attitudes in Multilingual Spain From an International Perspective. The Modern Language Journal, 101(3), 583–596. https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12414.

Liu, I.-F. (2020). The impact of extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation, and social self-efficacy on English competition participation intentions of pre-college learners: Differences between high school and vocational students in Taiwan. Learning and Motivation, 72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lmot.2020.101675.

Maatuk, A. M., Elberkawi, E. K., Aljawarneh, S., Rashaideh, H., & Alharbi, H. (2021). The COVID-19 Pandemic and E-learning: Challenges and Opportunities from the Perspective of Students and Instructors. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 1–18. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12528-021-09274-2.

Meini, I. N. (2019). Pengaruh Media Kahoot dan Motivasi Belajar Terhadap Hasil Belajar Siswa. Journal Information Engineering and Educational Technology, 3(1), 46–50. https://journal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/jieet/article/view/5086.

Meşe, E., & Sevilen, Ç. (2021). Factors influencing EFL students’ motivation in online learning: A qualitative case study. Journal of Educational Technology & Online Learning, 4(1), 11–22. https://doi.org/10.31681/ jetol.817680.

Putra, R. W. P. (2021). Improving the Students’ Motivation in Learning English through Google Meet during the Online Learning. English Learning Innovation, 2(1), 35–42. https://doi.org/10.22219/englie.v2i1.14605.

Rhim, H. C., & Han, H. (2020). Teaching online: foundational concepts of online learning and practical guidelines. Korean Journal of Medical Education, 32(3), 175–183. https://doi.org/10.3946/kjme.2020.171.

Saito, K., Dewaele, J.-M., Abe, M., & In’nami, Y. (2018). Motivation, Emotion, Learning Experience, and Second Language Comprehensibility Development in Classroom Settings: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Study. Language Learning, 68(3), 709–743. https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12297.

Simamora, R. M. (2020). The Challenges of Online Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Essay Analysis of Performing Arts Education Students. Studies in Learning and Teaching, 1(2), 86–103. https://doi.org/10.46627/silet.v1i2.38.

Sun, J. C. Y., & Rueda, R. (2012). Situational interest, computer self-efficacy and self-regulation: Their impact on student engagement in distance education. British Journal of Educational Technology, 43(2), 191–204. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2010.01157.x.

Supriyanto, A., Hartini, S., Irdasari, W. N., Miftahul, A., Oktapiana, S., & Mumpuni, S. D. (2020). Teacher professional quality: Counselling services with technology in Pandemic Covid-19. Counsellia: Jurnal Bimbingan Dan Konseling, 10(2), 176. https://doi.org/10.25273/counsellia.v10i2.7768.

Tan, C. (2021). The impact of COVID-19 on student motivation, community of inquiry and learning performance. Asian Education and Development Studies, 10(2), 308–321. https://doi.org/10.1108/aeds-05-2020-0084.

Tse, W. S., Choi, L. Y. A., & Tang, W. S. (2019). Effects of video-based flipped class instruction on subject reading motivation. British Journal of Educational Technology, 50(1), 385–398. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12569.

Tseng, H., Yi, X., & Yeh, H. T. (2019). Learning-related soft skills among online business students in higher education: Grade level and managerial role differences in self-regulation, motivation, and social skill. Computers in Human Behavior, 95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2018.11.035.

Vrieling, E. M., Bastiaens, T. J., & Stijnen, S. (2012). Effects of increased self-regulated learning opportunities on student teachers’ metacognitive and motivational development. International Journal of Educational Research, 53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2012.03.014.

Wang, A. I., & Tahir, R. (2020). The effect of using Kahoot! for learning – A literature review. Computers and Education, 149(January), 103818. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2020.103818.

Waqar, S., Shafiq, S., & Hasan, S. (2016). Impact of Procrastination and Academic Motivation on Academic Self-efficacy among University Students. IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS, 21(6), 7–13. https://doi.org/10.9790/0837-2106040713.

Yu, Z. (2021). The effects of gender, educational level, and personality on online learning outcomes during the COVID‑19 pandemic. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 18(1), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41239-021-00252-3.

Yulia. (2020). Online Learning to Prevent the Spread of Pandemic Corona Virus in Indonesia. ETERNAL (English Teaching Journal), 11(1). https://doi.org/10.26877/eternal.v11i1.6068.

Yustina, Syafii, W., & Vebrianto, R. (2020). The effects of blended learning and project-based learning on pre-service biology teachers’ creative thinking skills through online learning in the COVID-19 pandemic. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 9(3), 408–420. https://doi.org/10.15294/jpii.v9i3.24706.

Zhu, M., Bonk, C. J., & Doo, M. Y. (2020). Self-directed learning in MOOCs: Exploring the relationships among motivation, self-monitoring, and self-management. Educational Technology Research and Development, 68(5), 2073–2093. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-020-09747-8.

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2021-11-03