Implementation of Green Skills in Vocational Education: Perceptions about Students' and Teachers' Behavioral Activities


  • Aprillya Anastasia Haloho Yogyakarta State University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Pardjono Yogyakarta State University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Ida Nugroho Saputro Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Indonesia
  • Suyitno Yogyakarta State University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Bayu Ariwibowo Universitas IVET Semarang, Semarang, Indonesia



Green skills, Green behavioural activities, Vocational education, Teacher perceptions, Student perceptions


Vocational education has a duty to help green industries and sustainable development in society. However, learning in vocational education still has many shortcomings that must be overcome, given the contribution of a sizable negative impact on the environment. The implementation of green skills in learning is very important as an effort to overcome these problems. This study analyzes the perceptions of teachers and students as learning practitioners towards the implementation of green skills in the form of activity behavior in learning. Ten teachers and eight students were involved as key informants in collecting data through semi-structured interview techniques. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically with the help of NVivo 12 Plus Software. The findings in this study are classified into three main aspects, namely green skills planning activities, green behavior activities during learning, and green skills implementation evaluation. Planning activities related to the formulation of green competency outcomes, infrastructure needs and student readiness. As long as its implementation is oriented towards the behavior of reuse, reduce, repair and recycle. The impact of green behavior that is generated is about student learning comfort, energy-saving behavior and the ability to develop green products. The perceived evaluation is related to improving learning methodologies and building collaboration in class or collaboration with stakeholders, including the green industry, the local green environment service. Besides that, strengthening the competence of green skills-based learning management is very important to do.


Baharun, H., & Finori, F. D. (2019). Smart Techno Parenting: Alternatif Pendidikan Anak Pada Era Teknologi Digital. Jurnal Tatsqif, 17(1), 52–69. DOI:

Bali Swain, R., & Yang-Wallentin, F. (2020). Achieving sustainable development goals: predicaments and strategies. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, 27(2), 1–12. DOI:

Billett, S. (2011). Vocational Education: Purposes, Traditions and Prospects. Springer. DOI:

Cabral, C., & Lochan Dhar, R. (2019). Green competencies: Construct development and measurement validation. Journal of Cleaner Production, 235(1), 887–900. DOI:

Cledumas, A. M., Kamin, Y., Haruna, R., Umar, M. I., & Hamza, S. (2020). Exploring essential generic green skills for green jobs in the field of electrical electronics. Journal of Critical Reviews, 7(7), 860–864. DOI:

Cresswell, J. W. (2009). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches (3rd ed.). SAGE Publications, Inc.

Demir, M., Rjoub, H., & Yesiltas, M. (2021). Environmental awareness and guests’ intention to visit green hotels: The mediation role of consumption values. PLoS ONE, 16(5), 1–16. DOI:

Fan, H., Ismail, H. M., & Reza, S. M. (2018). Technological innovation, infrastructure and industrial growth in bangladesh: Empirical evidence from ardl and granger causality approach. Asian Economic and Financial Review, 8(7), 964–985. DOI:

Fu, L., Sun, Z., Zha, L., Liu, F., He, L., Sun, X., & Jing, X. (2020). Environmental awareness and pro-environmental behavior within China’s road freight transportation industry: Moderating role of perceived policy effectiveness. Journal of Cleaner Production, 252(1), 1–30. DOI:

Geng, M. M., & He, L. Y. (2021). Environmental regulation, environmental awareness and environmental governance satisfaction. Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(7), 1–17. DOI:

Gough, A., Lee, J. C.-K., & Tsang, E. P. K. (2020). Green Schools Globally: Stories of Impact on Education for Sustainable Development. Springer Nature Switzerland AG. DOI:

Hall, A. K., Nousiainen, M. T., Campisi, P., Dagnone, J. D., Frank, J. R., Kroeker, K. I., Brzezina, S., Purdy, E., & Oswald, A. (2020). Training disrupted: Practical tips for supporting competency-based medical education during the COVID-19 pandemic. Medical Teacher, 42(7), 756–761. DOI:

Hamza, S., Musta’Amal Jamal, A. H., & Kamin, Y. (2020). Integration factors of green skills into building construction trade programme in nigeria. Journal of Technical Education and Training, 12(1 Special Issue), 1–10.

Handayani, M. N., Kamis, A., Ali, M., Wahyudin, D., & Mukhidin, M. (2021). Development of green skills module for meat processing technology study. Journal of Food Science Education, 20(4), 189–196. DOI:

Jaeger, C. (2014). Choice for China: What role for vocational education in green growth? China and World Economy, 22(5), 55–75. DOI:

Kahia, M., & Ben Jebli, M. (2021). Industrial growth, clean energy generation, and pollution: evidence from top ten industrial countries. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(48), 68407–68416. DOI:

Kaliappan, A., & Hamid, H. (2021). Green technology: A must or a need in tvet education in Malaysia? Journal of Technical Education and Training, 13(1), 86–96.

Khan, A., Sicen, L., Khan, B., & Salman, N. (2021). On the influence of demographic structure and industrial growth on environmental quality. Journal of Environmental Management, 288(1), 1–11. DOI:

Kooli, C., & Abadli, R. (2021). Could Education Quality Audit Enhance Human Resources Management Processes of the Higher Education Institutions? Vision, 1–9. DOI:

Korhonen, K., & Lappalainen, A. (2004). Examining the environmental awareness of children and adolescents in the Ranomafana region, madagascar. Environmental Education Research, 10(2), 195–216. DOI:

Li, K., & Yuan, W. (2021). The nexus between industrial growth and electricity consumption in China – New evidence from a quantile-on-quantile approach. Energy, 231(1), 1–14. DOI:

Liu, L., Jiang, J., Bian, J., Liu, Y., Lin, G., & Yin, Y. (2021). Are environmental regulations holding back industrial growth? Evidence from China. Journal of Cleaner Production, 306(1), 1–12. DOI:

Mao, Y., Liu, K., & Zhou, J. (2019). Evolution of green industrial growth between Europe and China based on the energy consumption model. Sustainability (Switzerland), 11(24), 1–15. DOI:

McCoy, A. P., O’Brien, P., Novak, V., & Cavell, M. (2012). Toward understanding roles for education and training in improving green jobs skills development. International Journal of Construction Education and Research, 8(3), 186–203. DOI:

Mohd Zubir, M. Z., Lai, C. S., Zaime, A. F., Lee, M. F., Ibrahim, B., & Ismail, A. (2021). Dimension of green skills: Perspectives from the industry experts. Journal of Technical Education and Training, 13(1), 159–166.

Mumtaz, M. Z., Smith, Z. A., & Ahmed, A. M. (2016). An empirical analysis of the implicit growth rate for industrial IPOs listed in Pakistan. Pakistan Development Review, 55(1), 15–28. DOI:

Napathorn, C. (2021). The development of green skills across firms in the institutional context of Thailand. Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, 12(1), 1–12. DOI:

Nurtanto, M., Kholifah, N., Masek, A., Sudira, P., & Samsudin, A. (2021). Crucial Problems in Arranged The Lesson Plan of Vocational Teacher. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education (IJERE), 10(1), 345–354. DOI:

Olajire, A. A. (2020). The brewing industry and environmental challenges. Journal of Cleaner Production, 256(1), 1–21. DOI:

Onori, A., Lavau, S., & Fletcher, T. (2018). Implementation as more than installation: a case study of the challenges in implementing green infrastructure projects in two Australian primary schools. Urban Water Journal, 15(9), 911–917. DOI:

Pavlova, M. (2009). Technology and Vocational Education for Sustainable Development. Springer Science Business Media B.V. DOI:

Pavlova, M., & Singh, M. (2022). Recognizing Green Skills Through Non-formal Learning: A Comparative Studi in Asia. Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. DOI:

Salleh, N. A., Anwar, A., Satori, M., Teo, P. T., Shah, A., Othman, Z., & Zulhumadi, F. (2020). Biodegradable material in composting: Green initiatives in northern Malaysia and Indonesia. Journal of Critical Reviews, 7(8), 1642–1645.

Sern, L. C., Baharom, N., Foong, L. M., Nadrah, W. M. W. H., Islamiah, R. D., & Ana, A. (2021). Integrating green skills into tvet curricula in polytechnics malaysia. Journal of Technical Education and Training, 13(3), Integrating green skills into tvet curricula in po. DOI:

van den Bogerd, N., Dijkstra, S. C., Tanja-Dijkstra, K., de Boer, M. R., Seidell, J. C., Koole, S. L., & Maas, J. (2020). Greening the classroom: Three field experiments on the effects of indoor nature on students’ attention, well-being, and perceived environmental quality. Building and Environment, 171(1), 1–10. DOI:

Van Dijk-Wesselius, J. E., Van den Berg, A. E., Maas, J., & Hovinga, D. (2020). Green Schoolyards as Outdoor Learning Environments: Barriers and Solutions as Experienced by Primary School Teachers. Frontiers in Psychology, 10(1), 1–12. DOI:

Walker, E., Bormpoudakis, D., & Tzanopoulos, J. (2021). Assessing challenges and opportunities for schools’ access to nature in England. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 61(1), 1–14. DOI:

Wang, J., Xue, Y., Sun, X., & Yang, J. (2020). Green learning orientation, green knowledge acquisition and ambidextrous green innovation. Journal of Cleaner Production, 250(1), 1–13. DOI:

Xu, M., David, J. M., & Kim, S. H. (2018). The fourth industrial revolution: Opportunities and challenges. International Journal of Financial Research, 9(2), 90–95. DOI:

Yafi, E., Tehseen, S., & Haider, S. A. (2021). Impact of green training on environmental performance through mediating role of competencies and motivation. Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(10), 1–15. DOI:

Young, M., & Hordern, J. (2020). Does the vocational curriculum have a future? Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 9(02), 1–21. DOI:




How to Cite

Haloho, A. A. ., Pardjono, Saputro, I. N. ., Suyitno, & Ariwibowo, B. (2023). Implementation of Green Skills in Vocational Education: Perceptions about Students’ and Teachers’ Behavioral Activities. Jurnal Pendidikan Dan Pengajaran, 56(1), 65–79.