Integrating Digital Literacy Into EFL Classroom: A Study of Theory of Planned Behavior

Nurul Alfia, Sumardi sumardi, Diah Kristina


Beliefs take a vital role in influencing students' decision about integrating digital literacy in EFL classroom. This case study investigated students' behavioral, control, and normative beliefs toward integrating digital literacy into the EFL classroom. This research used the Theory of Planned Behavior initiated by Ajzen to collect and analyze the data. The results of interviews and observations highlighted students' integration of digital literacy into EFL classroom referred to several beliefs. The behavioral beliefs (attitude toward advantages of a behavior) about the value of digital literacy for its effectiveness and efficiency potential to find information, to promote students cognitive skills and ethical awareness, and to improve English proficiency; normative beliefs (about social support) about the meeting of the expectation of school, teachers, parents, and friends; and control beliefs (about perceive behavioral control) about the opportunity and the availability to interact with the technology. This study highlighted a substantive theory related to the findings: Students' positive beliefs about integrating digital literacy into EFL classroom influence students' learning strategy. By having positive beliefs about the outcomes that students will get (behavioral beliefs), support from family, teachers, and the school environment (normative beliefs), as well as beliefs about the presence of factors that may facilitate or hinder the performance (control beliefs), students demonstrate the tendency to always use digital technology in learning English.


students' beliefs; digital literacy; the theory of planned behaviour

Full Text:



Abdi, H., & Asadi, B. (2015). A Synopsis of Researches on Teachers’ and Students’ Beliefs about Language Learning. International Journal on Studies in English Language and Literature (IJSELL).

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.

Ajzen, I. (2005). Attitudes, Personality and Behavior (Second Edition). In Open University Press.

Alhamami, M. (2018). Beliefs about and intention to learn a foreign language in face-to-face and online settings. Computer Assisted Language Learning.

Allagui, B. (2014). Writing through WhatsApp: An evaluation of students writing performance. In International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation.

Bekker, T., Bakker, S., Douma, I., van der Poel, J., & Scheltenaar, K. (2015). Teaching children digital literacy through design-based learning with digital toolkits in schools. International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction.

Bordalba, M. M., & Bochaca, J. G. (2019). Digital media for family-school communication? Parents’ and teachers’ beliefs. Computers and Education.

Broto, G. S. D. (2014). Riset kominfo dan UNICEF mengenai perilaku anak dan remaja dalam menggunakan internet. In Siaran Pers No. 17/Pih/Kominfo/2/2014.

Buckingham, D. (2015). Defining digital literacy: What do young people need to know about digital media? Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy.

Cephe, P. T., & Yalcin, C. G. (2015). Beliefs about foreign language learning: The effects of teacher beliefs on learner beliefs. Anthropologist.

Chan, K. W., & Elliott, R. G. (2004). Relational analysis of personal epistemology and conceptions about teaching and learning. Teaching and Teacher Education.

Dunn, K. (2002). Assessing information literacy skills in the California State University: A progres report. Journal of Academic Librarianship.

Eshet-Alkalai, Y. (2012). Thinking in the Digital Era: A Revised Model for Digital Literacy. Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology.

Fabos, B. (2004). Giddy Prophesies and Commercial Ventures: The History of Educational Media. In Wrong Turn on the Information Superhighway: Education and the Commercialization of the Internet.

Ferrari, A. (2013). Digital Competence in Practice: An Analysis of Frameworks. Joint Research Centre of the European Commission.

Furinghetti, F., & Pehkonen, E. (2005). Rethinking Characterizations of Beliefs. In Beliefs: A Hidden Variable in Mathematics Education?

Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967). Grounded theory The discovery of grounded theory. In International Journal of Qualitative Methods.

Hafner, C. A., Chik, A., & Jones, R. H. (2015). Digital literacies and language learning. Language Learning and Technology.

Huang, F., Teo, T., & Zhou, M. (2020). Chinese students’ intentions to use the Internet-based technology for learning. Educational Technology Research and Development.

Iordache, C., Mariën, I., & Baelden, D. (2017). Developing digital skills and competences: A quick-scan analysis of 13 digital literacy models. Italian Journal of Sociology of Education.

Karagiannopoulou, E., & Christodoulides, P. (2005). The impact of Greek University students’ perceptions of their learning environment on approaches to studying and academic outcomes. International Journal of Educational Research.

Kimbell-Lopez, K., Cummins, C., & Manning, E. (2016). Developing Digital Literacy in the Middle School Classroom. Computers in the Schools.

Lee, S.-H. (2014). Digital Literacy Education for the Development of Digital Literacy. International Journal of Digital Literacy and Digital Competence.

Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalist inquiry. In Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Ng, W. (2012). Can we teach digital natives digital literacy? Computers and Education.

Payton, S., & Hague, C. (2010). Digital Literacy Professional Development Resource. Development.

Richards, J. C., & Lockhart, C. (1994). Reflective Teaching in Second Language Classrooms. In Reflective Teaching in Second Language Classrooms.

Roche, T. (2017). Assessing the role of digital literacy in English for academic purposes university pathway programs. Journal of Academic Language and Learning.

Rodliyah, R. S. (2016). USING A FACEBOOK CLOSED GROUP TO IMPROVE EFL STUDENTS’ WRITING. TEFLIN Journal - A Publication on the Teaching and Learning of English.

Sadaf, A., & Gezer, T. (2020). Exploring factors that influence teachers’ intentions to integrate digital literacy using the decomposed theory of planned behavior. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education.

Sadaf, A., & Johnson, B. L. (2017). Teachers’ Beliefs About Integrating Digital Literacy Into Classroom Practice: An Investigation Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education.

Soto, A., Dary, L., Gutierrez, G., & Andrea, Y. (2018). Digital Literacy and Basic Self-Regulation Habits in Early Childhood Learning of English as a Foreign Language. Folios.

Syah, R., Darmawan, D., & Purnawan, A. (2019). Analisis Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Kemampuan Literasi Digital. Jurnal Akrab.

Thompson, P. (2013). The digital natives as learners: Technology use patterns and approaches to learning. Computers and Education.

Wan, N. (2011). Why digital literacy is important for science teaching and learning. Teaching Science: The Journal of the Australian Science Teachers Association.


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 226 times
PDF file view : 65 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 JPI (Jurnal Pendidikan Indonesia)

Jurnal Pendidikan Indonesia (JPI) is published by:



Jl. Udayana, Kampus Tengah, Singaraja-Bali
Kode Pos 81116
Telp. 0362-22928

Jurnal Pendidikan Indonesia (JPI) is indexed by:

Akreditasi SINTA 2   Crossref JPI  Index Copernicus JPI JPI Undiksha OneSearch   Microsoft Academic JPI  JPI indexing by Asean Citaion Index 

Creative Commons License

Jurnal Pendidikan Indonesia is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.