4C-Based Learning Model: What, Why, How


  • Ni Made Ratminingsih [SCOPUS ID: 57195804993] Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9367-2196
  • I Gede Budasi Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha
  • Kadek Sonia Piscayanti Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha
  • Ni Luh Putu Era Adnyayanti Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha
  • IGA Pt Novita Sari Paragae STAH Negeri Mpu Kuturan Singaraja




Critical thinking, communication, collaboration, creativity


This article presents theoretical and empirical reviews on the nature, rationale and the implementation of teaching model developing students’ 4C skills in the classroom. It also shares the research result conducted in Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) Course of English Education Study Program. This descriptive research was conducted in the form of Research and Development Model by Gall, Gall, and Borg which resulted in the development of 4C-based learning model integrated in task-based learning framework. The expert judgement on the quality of the model proved that the developed model gained the mean score of 4.85 (from 5 Likert Scale) which means that the model was considered very good. The 4C-based learning model is a solutive learning model to be used in the 21st century in delivering TEFL course. Thus, it is expected that the lecturers of TEFL Course implement the model regularly to enable student teachers to obtain the required skills later both in their real teaching practicum and in their future career.

Author Biographies

Ni Made Ratminingsih, [SCOPUS ID: 57195804993] Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha

English Education

I Gede Budasi, Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha


Kadek Sonia Piscayanti, Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha

English Education

Ni Luh Putu Era Adnyayanti, Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha

English Education

IGA Pt Novita Sari Paragae, STAH Negeri Mpu Kuturan Singaraja

English Education


Afandi, Sajidan, Akhyar, M., & Suryani, N. (2019). Development frameworks of the Indonesian partnership 21 st -century skills standards for prospective science teachers: A Delphi study. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 8(1), 89–100. https://doi.org/10.15294/jpii.v8i1.11647.

Arifin, Z. (2017). Mengembangkan Instrumen Pengukur Critical Thinking Skills Siswa pada Pembelajaran Matematika Abad 21. Jurnal THEOREMS (The Original Research of Mathematics), 1(2), 92–100. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.31949/th.v1i2.383.

Bialik, M., & Fadel, C. (2015). Skills for the 21st centuty: What should studenst learn? In Center for Curriculum Redesign (Issue May).

Busà, M. (2010). Sounding natural: improving oral presentation skills. Sounding Natural: Improving Oral Presentation Skills, 2(2), 51–67.

Buyukkarci, K. (2009). a Critical Analysis of Task-Based Learning. Kastamonu Education Journal, 17(1), 313–320.

Changwong, K., Sukkamart, A., & Sisan, B. (2018). Critical thinking skill development: Analysis of a new learning management model for Thai high schools. Journal of International Studies, 11(2), 37–48. https://doi.org/10.14254/2071-8330.2018/11-2/3.

Davila, S. (2016, July). 21st century skills and the English language classroom. Pearson English, 1.

Erdogan, V. (2019). Integrating 4C Skills of 21st Century into 4 Language Skills in EFL Classes Vacide Erdoğan. International Journal of Education and Research, 7(11), 113–124.

Gall, M.D., Gall, J.P., & Borg, W. . (2003). Educational research. An introduction (7th Edition). (7th ed.). MA: Pearson Education, Inc.

Grohman, M., Wodniecka, Z., & Klusak, M. (2006). Divergent Thinking and Evaluation Skills: Do They Always Go Together? Journal of Creative Behaviour, 40(2), 125–145. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2162-6057.2006.tb01269.x.

Halverson, A. (2018). 21 st Century Skills and the “ 4Cs ” in the English Language Classroom by Andy Halvorsen. American English Institute, 0–4.

Hilal, H. M. H., Husin, W. N. I., & Zayed, T. M. (2013). Barriers to Creativity among Students of Selected Universities in Malaysia. International Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 3(6), 51–60.

Isaksen, S. G., Dorval, K. B., & Treffinger, D. J. (2011). Creative Approaches to Problem Solving: A Framework for Innovation and Change 3rd Edition (3rd ed.). Sage Publications, Inc.

Ismail, Z., Balakrishnan, M., & Wahid, H. (2016). The Integration of 21st-Century Learning Framework in the ASIE Instructional Design Model. Journal of Psychology Research, 6(7), 12. https://doi.org/10.17265/2159-5542/2016.07.004.

Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (2009). An educational psychology success story: Social interdependence theory and cooperative learning. Educational Researcher, 38(5), 365–379. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X09339057.

Khambayat, S. R. (2017). Developing Effective Communication Skills In Students Mrs. Shubhangi R. Khambayat Lecturer, (Education), Jagran Lakecity University (JLU), Bhopal. 4(37), 17. https://doi.org/DOI: https://doi.org/10.21922/srjis.v4i37.10829.

Kids, B. for. (2019). Framework for 21st century learning definitions. In Partnership for 21st Century Learning.

Killen, R. (2007). Effective teaching strategies : lessons from research and practice (4th ed.). Thomson Social Science Press.

Kogut, L. S. (1996). Critical Thinking in General Chemistry. Journal of Chemical Education, 73(3), 218–221. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1021/ed073p218.

Lan, H. G., Hock, T. Y., & Xiaoping, L. (2000). Assessing authentic learning using performance tasks : Experience at Crescent Girls ’ School. IAEA 35th Annual Conference, 2, 1–14.

Levin-Goldberg, J. (2012). Teaching Generation TechX with the 4Cs: Using Technology to Integrate 21st Century Skills. Journal of Instructional Research, 1, 59–66. https://doi.org/10.9743/jir.2013.8.

Marhaeni, A. A. I. N. (2013). Landasan dan inovasi pembelajaran (1st ed.). Pascasarjana UNDIKSHA.

Martin, E. (2015). Task-Based Teaching and Learning: Pedagogical Implications. In N. Van Deusen & S. May (Eds.), Second and Foreign Language Education (1st ed., pp. 1–11). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-02323-6_8-1.

Nakano, T. de C., & Wechsler, S. M. (2018). Creativity and innovation: Skills for the 21st century. Estudos de Psicologia (Campinas), 35(3), 237–246. https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-02752018000300002.

Nargundkar, S., Samaddar, S., & Mukhopadhyay, S. (2014). A Guided Problem‐Based Learning (PBL) Approach: Impact on Critical Thinking. Decision Sciences Journal of Inovative Education, 12(2), 91–108. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/dsji.12030.

Nugraha, A. J., Suyitno, H., & Susilaningsih, E. (2017). Analisis Kemampuan Berpikir Kritis Ditinjau dari Keterampilan Proses Sains dan Motivasi Belajar melalui Model PBL. Journal of Primary Education, 6(1), 35–43. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.15294/jpe.v6i1.14511.

Pardede, P. (2020). Integrating the 4Cs into EFL Integrated Skills Learning. Journal of English Teaching, 6(March), 71–85. https://doi.org/10.33541/jet.v6i1.190.

Radifan, M. F., & Dewanti, R. (2020). The Incorporation of 4C Skills in Senior High School English Teachers ’ Lesson Plans. STAIRS English Language Education Journal, 1(1), 42–54.

Ratminingsih, N. (2017, November). Revitalisasi pembelajaran abad ke-21. Bali Post.

Roekel, V. D. (2012). A-Guide-to-Four-Cs.pdf. .

Runco, M. A. (2004). Creativity. Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 657–687. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.141502.

Schafersman, S. D. (2019). An introduction to critical thinking. Nursing, 49(6), 42–43. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.NURSE.0000558090.23346.fb.

Schwab, K. (2016). The Fourth Industrial Revolution: what it means, how to respond. World Economic Forum.

Snyder & Synder. (2008). Teaching Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Skills. Delta Pi Epsilon Journal, 50(2), 90–99. https://doi.org/10.1177/0021955X7000600203.

Sugito. (2017). Enhancing Students’ Communication Skills through Problem Posing and Presentation. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education (IJERE), 6(1), 17. https://doi.org/10.11591/ijere.v6i1.6342.

Sukitkanaporn, T. & Supakorn, P. (2014). English presentation skills of Thai graduate students. English Language Teaching, 7(3), 91–102. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v7n3p91.

Syawaludin, A., Gunarhadi, & Rintayati, P. (2019). Development of augmented reality-based interactive multimedia to improve critical thinking skills in science learning. International Journal of Instruction, 12(4), 331–344. https://doi.org/10.29333/iji.2019.12421a.

Thomas, T. (2011). Developing first year students’ critical thinking skills. Asian Social Science, 7(4), 26–33. https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v7n4p26.

Thompson, C. (2011). Critical Thinking across the Curriculum: Process over Output. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 1(9), p4.

Twiningsih, A. T. (2020). Improving Student Learning Outcomes Through Stem-Based Magic Box Medium in The Concept of Addition Theory. International Journal on Research in STEM Education, 2(1), 79–90. https://doi.org/10.31098/ijrse.v2i1.183.

Vickers, R., Field, J., & Melakoski, C. (2020). Media Culture 2020: Collaborative Teaching and Blended Learning Using Social Media and Cloud-Based Technologies. Contemporary Educational Technology, 6(1), 62–73. https://doi.org/10.30935/cedtech/6139.

Xu, J. (2011). The Application of Critical Thinking in Teaching English Reading. 1(2), 136–141. https://doi.org/10.4304/tpls.1.2.136-141.

Yu, T. X., & Mohammad, W. R. W. M. (2019). Integration of 21st Century Learning Skills (4C Elements) in Interventions to Improve English Writing Skill Among 3K Class Students. International Journal of Contemporary Education, 2(2), 100. https://doi.org/10.11114/ijce.v2i2.4498.

Zubaidah, S. (2016). Keterampilan Abad Ke-21: Keterampilan Yang Diajarkan Melalui Pembelajaran. Seminar Nasional Pendidikan “Isu-Isu Strategis Pembelajaran MIPA Abad 21", Desember, 1–17.

Zubaidah, S. (2018). Mengenal 4C: Learning and Innovation Skills Untuk Menghadapi Era Revolusi Industri 4.0. 2nd Science Education National Conference, Oktober, 1–7.