The Effectivity of 3D Interactive Multimedia to Increase the Students’ Visuospatial Abilities in Molecular


  • Abdul Aziz Tamami Universitas Negeri Surabaya
  • Kusumawati Dwiningsih Universitas Negeri Surabaya



research and development, interactive multimedia, molecular shape geometry, effectiveness, visual-spatial intelligence


This research and development aims to develop interactive 3D multimedia that appropriate to increase students’ visuospatial abilities at molecular shapes geometry studies. This research and development use the modified research and development 4D Thiagarajan design model that limiting until the development testing step. The descriptive qualitative analysis is used to assess the data result. The multimedia effectiveness is stated based on the increasing right-answered percentage and N-Gain score interpretation. The result shows that it has an increasing right-answered percentage > 50% in each test indicator and signification rate at range 0,5174 – 1,0000 in the medium until  high level. The achievement of two kind effectiveness’ criteria can be stated that interactive 3D multimedia is appropriate as the effective learning media to increase student’s visuospatial abilities. Visual model in 2D and 3D utilization can aid the students’ representation skill, so that it can be applied to the other relevant matter.


Achuthan, K., Kolil, V. K., & Diwakar, S. (2018). Using Virtual Laboratories in Chemistry Classrooms As Interactive Tools Towards Modifying Alternate Conceptions in Molecular Symmetry. Education and Information Technologies, 23(6), 2499–2515.

Adytia, P. F., & Dwiningsih, K. (2018). Pengembangan Lembar Kegiatan Siswa Berorientasi Literasi Sains Pada Materi Ikatan Kimia. UNESA Journal of Chemical Education, 7(3), 358–364.

Antonoglou, L. D., Charistos, N. D., & Sigalas, M. P. (2011). Design, Development and Implementation of a Technology Enhanced Hybrid Course on Molecular Symmetry: Students’ Outcomes and Attitudes. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 12(4), 454–468.

Asyhar, R. (2012). Kreatif Mengembangkan Media Pembelajaran. Jakarta.

Baloyi, L. L., Ojo, S. O., & Van Wyk, E. A. (2017). Design and Development Of An Interactive Multimedia Simulation For Augmenting The Theacing and Learning Of Programming Concepts. ERIC, 67–93.

Barrett, T. J., Stull, A. T., Hsu, T. M., & Hegarty, M. (2015). Constrained Interactivity for Relating Multiple Representations in Science: When Virtual Is Better Than Real. Computers and Education, 81, 69–81.

Becker, N., Stanford, C., Towns, M., & Cole, R. (2015). Translating Across Macroscopic, Submicroscopic, and Symbolic Levels: The Role of Instructor Facilitation In An Inquiry-Oriented Physical Chemistry Class. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 16(4), 769–785.

Carlisle, D., Tyson, J., & Nieswandt, M. (2015). Fostering Spatial Skill Acquisition by General Chemistry Students. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 16(3), 478–517.

Chang, R., & Goldsby, K. A. (2014). General Chemistry: The Essential Concepts (Seventh Ed). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Chang, H. Y., & Linn, M. C. (2013). Scaffolding Learning from Molecular Visualizations. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 50(7), 858–886.

Daryanto. (2013). Media Pembelajaran. Yogyakarta: Gava Media.

Fatemah, A., Rasool, S., & Habib, U. (2020). Interactive 3D Visualization of Chemical Structure Diagrams Embedded in Text to Aid Spatial Learning Process of Students. Journal of Chemical Education, 97(4), 992–1000.

Fernandes, R., & Yamanaka, T. (2019). Interactive Design vs. Design for Interaction: Developing Interactive Play Tools that Promote Interactions between Children. In Interactive Multimedia - Multimedia Production and Digital Storytelling. IntechOpen.

Ghibaudi, E., Cerruti, L., & Villani, G. (2019). Structure, Shape, Topology: Entangled Concepts in Molecular Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry, 1–29.

Hake, R. R. (1999). Analyzing Change/Gain Scores. American Educational Research Association, (Division D), 1–4.

Hardhy, J., & Syahri, W. (2014). Pengembangan Media Pembelajaran dengan Lectora Inspire Materi Bentuk Molekul untuk Siswa Kelas X IPA SMAN 10. J. Ind. Soc. Integ. Chem., 2015, 7(2), 18–28.

Ibrahim, M. (2001). Model Pengembangan Perangkat Pembelajaran Menurut Jerold E. Kemp & Thiagarajan. Surabaya: PSMS-PPS UNESA.

Koleżyński, A. (2016). The Concepts of An Atom and Chemical Bond in Physics and Chemistry: The Role of Approximations. Semina Scientiarum, 10(0), 31.

M. Al-Balushi, S. (2012). The Effect of Macroscopic and Submicroscopic Pictorial Representations on Pre-Service Science Teachers’ Explanations. International Journal of Academic Research, 4(6), 10–14.

Merchant, Z., Goetz, E. T., Keeney-Kennicutt, W., Cifuentes, L., Kwok, O., & Davis, T. J. (2013). Exploring 3-D Virtual Reality Technology for Spatial Ability and chemistry Achievement. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 29(6), 579–590.

Olimpo, J. T., Kumi, B. C., Wroblewski, R., & Dixon, B. L. (2015). Examining The Relationship Between 2D Diagrammatic Conventions and Students’ Success on Representational Translation Tasks in Organic Chemistry. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 16(1), 143–153.

Ryoo, K., Bedell, K., & Swearingen, A. (2018). Promoting Linguistically Diverse Students’ Short-Term and Long-Term Understanding of Chemical Phenomena Using Visualizations. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 27(6), 508–522.

Sundayana, R. (2014). Statistika penelitian pendidikan. Bandung: Alfa Beta.

Trivic, D. D., & Milanovic, V. D. (2018). The Macroscopic, Submicroscopic and Symbolic Level in Explanations of A Chemical Reaction Provided by Thirteen-Year Olds. Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society, 83(10), 1177–1192.

Tuvi-Arad, I., & Blonder, R. (2010). Continuous Symmetry and Chemistry Teachers: Learning Advanced Chemistry Content Through Novel Visualization Tools. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 11(1), 48–58.

Uyulgan, M. A., Akkuzu, N., & Alpat, Ş. (2014). Assessing The Students’ Understanding Related To Molecular Geometry Using A Two-Tier Diagnostic Test. Journal of Baltic Science Education, 13(6), 839–855.

Wu, H.-K., & Shah, P. (2014). Exploring Visuospatial Thinking in Chemistry Learning. Science Education, 88(3), 465–492.