Distance Learning and Character Building in Rural Area During the Covid-19 Pandemic





Distance Learning, Character Building, Rural Area, Covid-19


The COVID-19 pandemic has brought a number of obstacles and challenges in learning. The bigger obstacle is found for schools in rural areas. Starting from the problem of the availability of supporting facilities, parental support, to the problem of teacher readiness in carrying out learning and character education during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore this study aims to describe the teacher's strategy in carrying out distance learning and character education in rural area during the Covid-19 pandemic. This research was a qualitative research, involving 13 teachers. The data were collected through observation, interview, and questionnaire. The data analysis was carried out in by using a qualitative descriptive analysis. The data were analyzed through three stages, namely data reduction, data presentation, and data verification. The data were validated through source, method, and theory triangulations. The results of this study indicate that the teachers’ strategies in implementing distance learning include: Whatsapp-based online distance learning, offline distance learning, and mixed distance learning. There were 3 strategies to carry out character education during the Covid-19 pandemic, namely direct feedback through examples or narrative in the text. Examples given were also in the form of pictures; and through a checklist of daily and weekly activities. Various obstacles occured in distance learning and character education. Parents also felt stressed because of the increased burden during the pandemic. Therefore, collaboration between various components is needed to design the most effective learning strategies in rural areas.

Author Biography

I Putu Mas Dewantara, [Scopus ID: 57208126567] Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha


Abuhassna, H., Al-Rahmi, W. M., Yahya, N., Zakaria, M. A. Z. M., Kosnin, A. B. M., & Darwish, M. (2020). Development of a new model on utilizing online learning platforms to improve students’ academic achievements and satisfaction. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education 2020 17:1, 17(1), 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1186/S41239-020-00216-Z.

Aditya, D. S. (2015). Embarking digital learning due to COVID-19: Are teachers ready? Journal of Technology and Science Education, 11(1), 104–116. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3926/jotse.1109.

Aji, R. H. S. (2020). Dampak Covid-19 pada Pendidikan di Indonesia: Sekolah, Keterampilan, dan Proses Pembelajaran. Jurnal Sosial Dan Budaya Syar-I, 7(5). https://doi.org/10.15408/sjsbs.v7i5.15314.

Akhwani, & Romdloni, M. A. (2021). Indonesian Journal of Primary Education. Indonesian Journal of Primary Education, 5(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.17509/ijpe.v5i1.31381.

Andarwulan, T., Al Fajri, T. A., & Damayanti, G. (2021). Elementary teachers’ readiness toward the online learning policy in the new normal era during Covid-19. International Journal of Instruction, 14(3), 771–786. https://doi.org/10.29333/iji.2021.14345.

Arkiang, F. (2021). Analisis Pembelajaran Daring Selama Pandemi Covid-19 Di Daerah 3T (Nusa Tenggara Timur). Jurnal Pendidikan, 12(Vol 12, No 1 (2021)), 57–64. https://doi.org/https://dx.doi.org/10.31258/jp.12.1.57-64.

Asih, P., & Sunarso, A. (2020). Implementation of Character Education to Improve the Students Discipline Through Habituation of Nadzam Asmaul Husna Recitation at Grade IV. Elementary School Teacher, 3(1). https://doi.org/10.15294/est.v3i1.28035.

Astuti, A. D., Suyatno, S., & Yoyo, Y. (2020). The Strategy of Principal In Instilling Religious Character In Muhammadiyah Elementary School. The European Educational Researcher, 3(2), 67–85. https://doi.org/10.31757/euer.323.

Atsani, K. L. (2020). Transformasi Media Pembelajaran Pada Masa Pandemi Covid-19. Jurnal Teknologi Pendidikan, 22(1), 65–70. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.47730/jurnallampuhyang.v11i2.194.

Ayuni, D., Marini, T., Fauziddin, M., & Pahrul, Y. (2021). Kesiapan Guru TK Menghadapi Pembelajaran Daring Masa Pandemi Covid-19. Jurnal Obsesi : Jurnal Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini, 5(1). https://doi.org/10.31004/obsesi.v5i1.579.

Azhari, B., & Fajri, I. (2021). Distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic: School closure in Indonesia. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology. https://doi.org/10.1080/0020739X.2021.1875072.

Barnard, M., Whitt, E., & McDonald, S. (2021). Learning objectives and their effects on learning and assessment preparation: insights from an undergraduate psychology course. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 46(5), 673–684. https://doi.org/10.1080/02602938.2020.1822281.

Bokayev, B., Torebekova, Z., Abdykalikova, M., & Davletbayeva, Z. (2020). Exposing policy gaps: the experience of Kazakhstan in implementing distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, 15(2), 275–290. https://doi.org/10.1108/TG-07-2020-0147.

Cha, H., & So, H.-J. (2021). Online Learning in K-12 Schools Amid Covid-19 in South Korea: Challenges and Opportunities. In Radical Solutions for Education in a Crisis Context. Lecture Notes in Educational Technology. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-7869-4_20.

Churiyah, M., Sholikhan, S., Filianti, F., & Sakdiyyah, D. A. (2020). Indonesia Education Readiness Conducting Distance Learning in Covid-19 Pandemic Situation. International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding, 7(6), 491. https://doi.org/10.18415/ijmmu.v7i6.1833.

Dewi, W. A. F. (2020). Dampak COVID-19 terhadap Implementasi Pembelajaran Daring di Sekolah Dasar. Edukatif : Jurnal Ilmu Pendidikan, 2(1), 55–61. https://doi.org/10.31004/edukatif.v2i1.89.

Dietrich, N., Kentheswaran, K., Ahmadi, A., Teychene, J., Bessiere, Y., Alfenore, S., Laborie, S., Bastoul, D., Loubiere, K., Guigui, C., Sperandio, M., Barna, L., Paul, E., Cabassud, C., Line, A., & Hebrard, G. (2020). Attempts, successes, and failures of distance learning in the time of covid-19. Journal of Chemical Education, 97(9), 2448–2457. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jchemed.0c00717.

Fitriya, D., Magdalena, I., & Fauziah Fadhillahwati, N. (2021). Konsep Pembelajaran Daring di Era Pandemi Covid-19. Cerdika: Jurnal Ilmiah Indonesia, 1(3), 182–188. https://doi.org/10.36418/cerdika.v1i3.30.

Fortuna, A. P., Rida, A. M., Maharani, L. S. P., Ardiansyah, R., & Sari, A. A. (2020). A needs analysis of digital connecting book in education in the pandemic era. ACM International Conference Proceeding Series. https://doi.org/10.1145/3452144.3452154.

Goudeau, S., Sanrey, C., Stanczak, A., Manstead, A., & Darnon, C. (2021). Why lockdown and distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic are likely to increase the social class achievement gap. Nature Human Behaviour. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-021-01212-7.

Gul, R., & Khilji, G. (2021). Exploring the need for a responsive school curriculum to cope with the Covid-19 pandemic in Pakistan. Prospects. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11125-020-09540-8.

Hanesty, E., Neviyarni, N., & Karneli, Y. (2020). Factors affecting student learning motivation during the Covid-19 pandemic. International Journal of Applied Counseling and Social Sciences, 02(1), 100–107. https://doi.org/10.24036/005404ijaccs.

Indrawati, M., Prihadi, C., & Siantoro, A. (2020). The Covid-19 Pandemic Impact on Children’s Education in Disadvantaged and Rural Area Across Indonesia. International Journal of Education (IJE), 8(4), 19–33. https://doi.org/10.5121/ije.2020.8403.

Jalal, M. (2020). Kesiapan Guru Menghadapi Pembelajaran Jarak Jauh Di Masa Covid-19. SMART KIDS: Jurnal Pendidikan Islam Anak Usia Dini, 2(1), 35. https://doi.org/10.30631/smartkids.v2i1.61.

Joaquin, J. J. B., Biana, H. T., & Dacela, M. A. (2020). The Philippine Higher Education Sector in the Time of COVID-19. Frontiers in Education, 5(October), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2020.576371.

Kalyuga, S. (2012). Interactive distance education: A cognitive load perspective. Journal of Computing in Higher Education. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12528-012-9060-4.

Kurnia, W., & Lena, M. S. (2021). Pengaruh Pembelajaran Jarak Jauh (PJJ)LuringTerhadap Hasil BelajarSiswaSD. Jurnal Pendidikan Tambusai, 5(1), 1743–1749. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.31004/jptam.v5i1.1161.

Lase, D., Zega, T. G. C., & Daeli, D. O. (2021). Parents’ Perceptions of Distance Learning during COVID-19 Pandemic in Rural Indonesia. SSRN Electronic Journal, 13(2), 101–111. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3890610.

Lau, E. Y. H., & Lee, K. (2021). Parents’ Views on Young Children’s Distance Learning and Screen Time During COVID-19 Class Suspension in Hong Kong. Early Education and Development, 32(6), 863–880. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2020.1843925.

Lemay, D. J., Bazelais, P., & Doleck, T. (2021). Transition to online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. Computers in Human Behavior Reports, 4, 100130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chbr.2021.100130.

Mali, D., & Lim, H. (2021). How do students perceive face-to-face/blended learning as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic? International Journal of Management Education, 19(3), 100552. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijme.2021.100552.

Mamluah, S. K., & Maulidi, A. (2021). Pembelajaran Jarak Jauh (PJJ) di Masa Pandemi COVID-19 di Sekolah Dasar. Jurnal Basicedu, 5(2). https://doi.org/10.31004/basicedu.v5i2.800.

Mansur, H., Jumadi, Mastur, Utama, A. H., & Prastitasari, H. (2021). The Problem of Distance Learning During the Covid-19 Pandemic. Ilkogretim Online - Elementary Education Online, 20(4), 168–175. https://doi.org/doi: 10.17051/ilkonline.2021.04.19.

Mpungose, C. B. (2021). Lecturers’ reflections on use of Zoom video conferencing technology for e-learning at a South African university in the context of coronavirus. African Identities. https://doi.org/10.1080/14725843.2021.1902268.

Muradi, A., Islam, U., Antasari, N., & Kalimantan, S. (2021). Revitalization of Education for Children in Indonesian Families During the Covid-19 Pandemic. İlköğretim Online, 20(3), 481–490. https://doi.org/10.17051/ilkonline.2021.03.48.

Mustikaningrum, G., Pramusinta, L., Ayu, S., & Umar, M. (2020). Kurikulum Dan Metode Pembelajaran Pada Masa Pandemi Covid-19 the Implementation of Character Education Integrated To Curriculum and Learning Methods During Covid-19 Pandemic. AULADUNA: Jurnal Pendidikan Dasar Islam, 7(2), 154–164. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.24252/10.24252/auladuna.v7i2a5.2020.

Novianto, G. D., Herman, D. A., & Hadiapurwa, A. (2021). Jurnal Inovasi Pendidikan dan Pembelajaran Sekolah Dasar Pelaksanaan Pendidikan Jarak Jauh bagi Pendidik dan Peserta Didik di Masa Pandemi Covid-19 di Sekolah Dasar. 4, 98–111. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.24036/jippsd.v4i2.112590.

Permatasari, N. A., Setiawan, D., & Kironoratri, L. (2021). Model Penanaman Karakter Disiplin Siswa Sekolah Dasar pada Masa Pembelajaran Daring. 3(6), 3758–3768. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.31004/edukatif.v3i6.1303.

Pike, M. A., Hart, P., Paul, S. A. S., Lickona, T., & Clarke, P. (2021). Character development through the curriculum: teaching and assessing the understanding and practice of virtue. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 53(4), 449–466. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220272.2020.1755996.

Prabowo, S. H., Fakhruddin, A., & Rohman, M. (2020). Peran Orang Tua Dalam Pembentukan Karakter Anak Di Masa Pandemi Covid-19 Perspektif Pendidikan Islam. Pendidikan Islam, 11(2), 191–207. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.24042/atjpi.v11i2.7806.

Pradana, D. A., Mahfud, M., Hermawan, C., & Susanti, H. D. (2021). Nasionalism: Character Education Orientation in Learning Development. Budapest International Research and Critics Institute (BIRCI-Journal): Humanities and Social Sciences, 3(4), 4026–4034. https://doi.org/10.33258/birci.v3i4.1501.

Puspitasari, F. F., Mukti, T. S., Supriyanto, & Munadi, M. (2021). Character Building Through the Synergy Between Parents and School in Indonesia. Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering, Technology and Social Science (ICONETOS 2020), 529(Iconetos 2020), 16–21. https://doi.org/10.2991/assehr.k.210421.003.

Putra, R. W. P. (2021). Improving the Students’ Motivation in Learning English through Google Meet during the Online Learning. English Learning Innovation, 2(1), 35–42. https://doi.org/10.22219/englie.v2i1.14605.

Rasmitadila, Aliyyah, R. R., Rachmadtullah, R., Samsudin, A., Syaodih, E., Nurtanto, M., & Tambunan, A. R. S. (2020). The Perceptions of Primary School Teachers of Online Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic Period : A Case Study in Indonesia. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 7(2), 90–109. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.29333/ejecs/388.

Sabrina, U., Ardianti, S. D., & Ermawati, D. (2021). Kendala dalam Menumbuhkan Karakter Religius Anak Usia Sekolah Dasar selama Pandemi Covid 19. Edukatif : Jurnal Ilmu Pendidikan, 3(5), 3079–3089. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.31004/edukatif.v3i5.1233.

Saha, A., Dutta, A., & Sifat, R. I. (2021). The mental impact of digital divide due to COVID-19 pandemic induced emergency online learning at undergraduate level: Evidence from undergraduate students from Dhaka City. Journal of Affective Disorders, 294(June), 170–179. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.07.045.

Sari, Sinaga, Hernani, & Solfarina. (2020). Chemistry Learning via Distance Learning during the Covid-19 Pandemic. TADRIS (Journal of Education and Teacher Training), 5(1). https://doi.org/10.24042/tadris.v5i1.6346.

Septina, L. D., Nisa, K., & Istiningsih, S. (2020). Analisis hambatan pembelajaran jarak jauh oleh guru pada masa pandemi covid-19 di SDN 41 Ampera. Jurnal Ilmiah Pendas: Primary Education Journal, 1(2), 85–89. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.29303/pendas.v1i2.63.

Setiawan, J. A., Suparno, Sahabuddin, C., Tasrif, & Ramadhan, S. (2020). The role of parents on the character education of kindergarten children aged 5-6 years in bima. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(3), 779–784. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2020.080307.

Setyaningsih, K. D. (2020). Analisis Pelaksanaan Pembelajaran Jarak Jauh Di Sd Negeri Karangrena 03. Jurnal Riset Pendidikan Dasar (JRPD), 1(2), 19–27. https://doi.org/10.30595/.v1i2.9012.

Simatupang, N. I., Sitohang, S. R. I., Situmorang, A. P., & Simatupang, I. M. (2020). Efektivitas pelaksanaan pengajaran online pada masa pandemi covid-19 dengan metode survey sederhana. Jurnal Dinamika Pendidikan, 13(2), 197–203. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.51212/jdp.v13i2.1754.

Simbolon, M. E., Adi, Y. K., Angraeni, S., & Pratiwi, D. P. (2021). Teacher Personality Competencies As Character. 2(1). https://doi.org/10.25134/ijete.v2i1.4140.

Sindiani, A. M., Obeidat, N., Alshdaifat, E., Elsalem, L., Alwani, M. M., Rawashdeh, H., Fares, A. S., Alalawne, T., & Tawalbeh, L. I. (2020). Distance education during the COVID-19 outbreak: A cross-sectional study among medical students in North of Jordan. Annals of Medicine and Surgery, 59, 186–194. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.AMSU.2020.09.036.

Slovaček, K. A., & Čosić, G. (2020). The Role of Parents during the COVID19 Pandemic in Croatia. Studies in Educational Management, 8(8), 9–17. https://doi.org/10.32038/sem.2020.08.02.

Sonnenschein, S., Grossman, E. R., & Grossman, J. A. (2021). U.S. parents’ reports of assisting their children with distance learning during covid-19. Education Sciences, 11(9). https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11090501.

Stojanović, J., Petkovic, D., Alarifi, I. M., Cao, Y., Denic, N., & Ilic, J. (2021). Application of distance learning in mathematics through adaptive neuro-fuzzy learning method. Computers & Electrical Engineering, 93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compeleceng.2021.107270.

Susilowati, E., & Azzasyofia, M. (2020). The parents stress level in facing children study from home in the early of covid-19 pandemic in Indonesia. International Journal of Science and Society, 2(3), 1–12. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.200609/ijsoc.v2i3.117.

Tamboto, H., Tambingon, H. N., Lengkong, J. S. ., & Rotty, V. N. J. (2021). The Involvement of Students’ Parents in Organizing the Learning from Home at Elementary Schools in Tomohon City. Asia Pacific Journal of Management and Education, 4(1), 35–51. https://doi.org/10.32535/apjme.v4i1.1044.

Tiwery, W. Y., Patty, F. N., & Nanlohy, D. F. (2021). Role Of Family For Children’s Education During A Pandemic In Eastern Indonesia. Turkish Journal of Computer and Mathematics Education (TURCOMAT), 12(7), 1522–1527. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.17762/turcomat.v12i7.2965.

Vernadakis, Giannous, Derri, Michalopoulos, & Kioumourtzoglou. (2012). The impact of blended and traditional instruction in students performance. In Procedia Technology, 1(1), 439–443. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.protcy.2012.02.098

Wang, K. Y. C. (2020). Information Behavior of Parents during COVID-19 in Relation to Their Young School-age Children’s Education. Serials Librarian, 79(1–2), 62–77. https://doi.org/10.1080/0361526X.2020.1806179

Wesolowski, B. C. (2015). Tracking Student Achievement in Music Performance. Music Educators Journal, 102(1), 39–47. https://doi.org/10.1177/0027432115589352

Wiyani, N. A. (2020). Implementation of a Character Education Strategy in the Perspective of Permendikbud Number 23 of 2015 at Raudhatul Athfal. Tarbawi: Jurnal Keilmuan Manajemen Pendidikan, 6(02), 141. https://doi.org/10.32678/tarbawi.v6i02.2934.

Yigzaw, M., Tebekaw, Y., Kim, Y.-M., Kols, A., & Ayalew, F. (2019). Comparing the effectiveness of a blended learning approach with a conventional learning approach for basic emergency obstetric and newborn care training in Ethiopia. Midwifery, 78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2019.07.014.

Yoga Purandina, I. P., & Astra Winaya, I. M. (2020). Pendidikan Karakter di Lingkungan Keluarga Selama Pembelajaran Jarak Jauh pada Masa Pandemi COVID-19. Cetta: Jurnal Ilmu Pendidikan, 3(2), 270–290. https://doi.org/10.37329/cetta.v3i2.454.

Yusoff, S., Yusoff, R., & Noh, N. . (2017). Blended Learning Approach for Less Proficient Students. SAGE Open, 7(3), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F2158244017723051.

Yustina, Syafii, W., & Vebrianto, R. (2020). The effects of blended learning and project-based learning on pre-service biology teachers’ creative thinking skills through online learning in the COVID-19 pandemic. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 9(3), 408–420. https://doi.org/10.15294/jpii.v9i3.24706.

Zhang, Y., Ghandour, A., & Shestak, V. (2020). Using Learning Analytics to Predict Students Performance in Moodle LMS. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v15i20.15915.