Urgency of E-Books Based Multimodal Approach Towards Reading Motivation for Elementary School Students


  • Liana Mumrikoh Sebelas Maret University
  • Djono Djono Sebelas Maret University
  • Nur Arifah Drajati Sebelas Maret University




E-Book, multimodal approach, reading motivation, students engagement


Reading motivation is an important predictor of reading achievement in elementary school.  Electronic book or digital book is one of the media that students can always access by technological assistance. This study aims to determine the urgency and potential of developing a teaching material product in the form of  E-Book based multimodal approach on reading motivation for elementary school students. This research is included in the mixed method approach using explanatory sequential design. The research subjects consisted of teachers and 79 students in fifth grade. The data collected in this study are qualitative and quantitative data. Qualitative data was collected using observation techniques, and interviews whose instruments were observation sheets and interview guidelines. Quantitative data was collected using non-test techniques, namely questionnaires and followed by questionnaires as instruments. Furthermore, the research data will be analyzed descriptively with interactive analysis through data collection, data reduction, data presentation, and conclusion drawing. The results showed that during the implementation of learning, teachers only used teaching materials in the form of printed books that causes students to be lazy to read and student responses stated that they needed interesting ICT-based teaching materials to increase engagement, reading habit and motivation to read which in this case as many as 94% of students agreed if there was development in interactive teaching materials in e-book format for language learning.Therefore, this study concluded that to encourage good reading habits among students, schools especially teachers should provide access to learning using ebooks and sufficient facilities to accommodate all students. Implication of this study can be a reference for teachers to develop similar electronic media. Librarians should intensify their efforts to create more reading awareness among students.


Adijaya, M. A., Widiana, I. W., Parwata, I. G. L. A., & Antara, I. G. W. S. (2023). Bloom’s Taxonomy Revision-Oriented Learning Activities to Improve Procedural Capabilities and Learning Outcomes. International Journal of Educational Methodology, 9(1), 261–270. https://doi.org/10.12973/ijem.9.1.261. DOI: https://doi.org/10.12973/ijem.9.1.261

Akpokodje, V. N., & Ukwuoma, S. C. (2016). Evaluating the Impact of E-book on Reading Motivation of Students of Higher Learning in Nigerian Universities. International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) World Library and Information Congress (WLIC) 2016 — Columbus, Ohio, November, 1–15.

Albeckay, E. M. (2014). Developing Reading Skills through Critical Reading Programme amongst Undergraduate EFL Students in Libya. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 123, 175–181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.1412. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.1412

Allred, J. B., & Cena, M. E. (2020). Reading Motivation in High School: Instructional Shifts in Student Choice and Class Time. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 64(1), 27–35. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaal.1058. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jaal.1058

Almalki, S. (2016). Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Data in Mixed Methods Research—Challenges and Benefits. Journal of Education and Learning, 5(3), 288. https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v5n3p288. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v5n3p288

Antara, I. G. W. S., & Dewantara, K. A. K. (2022). E-Scrapbook: The Needs of HOTS Oriented Digital Learning Media in Elementary Schools. Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, 5(1), 71–76. https://doi.org/10.23887/jlls.v5i1.48533. DOI: https://doi.org/10.23887/jlls.v5i1.48533

Antara, I. G. W. S., Suma, K., & Parmiti, D. P. (2022). E-Scrapbook: Konstruksi Media Pembelajaran Digital Bermuatan Soal-soal Higher Order Thinking Skills. Jurnal Edutech Undiksha, 10(1), 11–20. https://doi.org/10.23887/jeu.v10i1.47559.

Bao, X. (2017). Application of Multimodality to Teaching Reading. English Language and Literature Studies, 7(3), 78. https://doi.org/10.5539/ells.v7n3p78. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/ells.v7n3p78

Bee Choo, Y., & Zainuddin, N. S. (2018). The Use of E-Book to Improve Reading Comprehension Among Year 4 Pupils. Journal of English Education, 3(1), 23–32. https://doi.org/10.31327/jee.v3i1.477. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31327/jee.v3i1.477

Binti Jusoh, Z., Zubairi, A. M., & Badrasawi, K. J. I. (2018). Validity evidence using expert judgment: A study of using item congruence involving expert judgements for evidence for validity of a reading test. Al-Shajarah, Special Issue: EDUCATION, 307–320.

Boeglin-Quintana, B., & Donovan, L. (2022). Storytime using iPods: Using technology to reach all learners. TechTrends, 57, 49–56. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11528-013-0701-x. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11528-013-0701-x

Brugar, K. A., Roberts, K. L., Jiménez, L. M., & Meyer, C. K. (2018). More Than Mere Motivation: Learning Specific Content Through Multimodal Narratives. Literacy Research and Instruction, 57(2), 183–208. https://doi.org/10.1080/19388071.2017.1351586. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/19388071.2017.1351586

Budiarto, L., & Akhyar, M. (2022). The Urgency of Prototype Curriculum Based E-Book for Mathematics Learning for Vocational School Students. Journal of Education Technology, 6(4), 16–23. https://doi.org/10.35445/alishlah.v15i1.2641. DOI: https://doi.org/10.23887/jet.v6i4.53286

Chinappi, G. M. (2015). How to Increase Reading Motivation among Elementary Children Based on Teachers ’ Perspectives and Teaching Methods. Education and Human Development Master’s Theses, 586, 113. http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12648/5804.

Ciampa, K. (2015). Motivating grade 1 children to read: Exploring the role of choice, curiosity, and challenge in mobile eBooks. Reading Psychology, 37(5), 665–705. https://doi.org/10.1080/02702711.2015.1105337. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02702711.2015.1105337

Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2018). Mixed Methods Procedures. In Research Defign: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed M ethods Approaches.

Dawadi, S., Shrestha, S., & Giri, R. A. (2021). Mixed-Methods Research: A Discussion on its Types, Challenges, and Criticisms. Journal of Practical Studies in Education, 2(2), 25–36. https://doi.org/10.46809/jpse.v2i2.20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.46809/jpse.v2i2.20

Eladl, A., & Musawi, A. Al. (2020). Effects of students attitudes towards using E- books on their self-efficacy and academic motivation. European Journal of Educational Research, 9(3), 1167–1176. https://doi.org/10.12973/EU-JER.9.3.1167. DOI: https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.9.3.1167

Evans, M. A., Nowak, S., Burek, B., & Willoughby, D. (2017). The effect of alphabet eBooks and paper books on preschoolers’ behavior: An analysis over repeated readings. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 40, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2017.02.002. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2017.02.002

Fitria, W. (2019). Reading Interest and Reading Comprehension : A Correlational Study. Journal Educative : Journal of Educational Studies, 4(1), 95. https://doi.org/10.30983/educative.v4i1.1333. DOI: https://doi.org/10.30983/educative.v4i1.1333

Gerbig, K. M. (2009). Reading Motivation: 10 Elements for Success. Motivational Strategies That Work! Educators’ Spotlight Digest, 3(2), 1–4.

Ghofur, A., & Rachma, E. A. (2019). Pemanfaatan Media Digital Terhadap Indeks Minat Baca Masyarakat Kabupaten Lamongan. Gulawentah:Jurnal Studi Sosial, 4(2), 89. https://doi.org/10.25273/gulawentah.v4i2.5524. DOI: https://doi.org/10.25273/gulawentah.v4i2.5524

Hung, D. M., & Ngan, V. P. T. (2015). Investigating Reading Strategies Used by EFL Students at Dong Thap University. Asian Journal of Educational Research, 3(4), 10–20.

Huzaefah, O., & Lubis, T. (2021). Reading Interest Level in Primary School Teachers Based on the Implementation of the School Literacy Movement in Depok City. JHSS (Journal of Humanities and Social Studies), 5(2), 95–98. https://doi.org/10.33751/jhss.v5i2.3707. DOI: https://doi.org/10.33751/jhss.v5i2.3707

Irvin, V. (2015). Book Tweets and Snappy Reads: Booktalking to Engage Millennial Teens. The Journal of Research on Libraries and Young Adults, 6(4).

Jamil, N. A., & Abdul Aziz, A. (2021). The Use of Multimodal Text in Enhancing Students’ Reading Habit. Malaysian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (MJSSH), 6(9), 487–492. https://doi.org/10.47405/mjssh.v6i9.977. DOI: https://doi.org/10.47405/mjssh.v6i9.977

Kaban, A. L. (2021). Children ’ s Reading Comprehension and Motivation on Screen Versus on Paper. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244020988849. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244020988849

Komiyama, R., & McMorris Alessandra. (2017). Examining International Students’ Motivation to Read in English From a Self-Determination Theory Perspective. The CATESOL Journal, 29(2), 61–80. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1164351.

LeCompte, M. D., & Schensul, J. J. (2010). Designing and conducting ethnographic research: An introduction. Rowman Altamira.

Li, L., & Doyle, A. (2020). Reading Motivation: Classroom-Based Instruction and the Potential of Electronic-Text Reading. Canadian Journal for New Scholars in Education/ Revue Canadienne Des Jeunes Chercheures et Chercheurs En Éducation, 11(1), 79–86. https://journalhosting.ucalgary.ca/index.php/cjnse/article/view/69303.

Lim, V. F., & Tan, S. K. Y. (2018). Developing Multimodal Literacy Through Teaching the Critical Viewing of Films in Singapore. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 62(3), 291–300. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaal.882. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jaal.882

Long, D., & Szabo, S. (2016). E-readers and the effects on students’ reading motivation, attitude and comprehension during guided reading. Cogent Education, 3(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2016.1197818. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2016.1197818

Marbun, I. S., & Sipahuta, R. A. (2016). The Correlation between Motivation and Students’ Achievement in Reading Comprehension at SMP Negeri 8 Grade VIII Pematangsiantar. Journal of English Teaching as a Foreign Language, 2(1), 29.

McGeown, S., Bonsall, J., Andries, V., Howarth, D., & Wilkinson, K. (2020). Understanding reading motivation across different text types: qualitative insights from children. Journal of Research in Reading, 43(4), 597–608. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9817.12320. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9817.12320

Muhyidin, A. (2018). Reading Interest and Mastery of Foreign Absorbing Vocabulary (Minat Baca dan Penguasaan Kosakata Serapan Asing). Indonesian Language Education and Literature, 3(2), 143. https://doi.org/10.24235/ileal.v3i2.1835. DOI: https://doi.org/10.24235/ileal.v3i2.1835

Nanda, A., & Simamora, A. H. (2022). Video Pembelajaran Berbasis PMRI pada Materi Operasi Hitung Bilangan Cacah (VIORI). Indonesian Journal of Instruction, 3(1), 42–53. https://doi.org/10.23887/iji.v3i1.52101. DOI: https://doi.org/10.23887/iji.v3i1.52101

Nash, B. (2018). Exploring multimodal writing in secondary English classrooms: a literature review. English Teaching, 17(4), 342–356. https://doi.org/10.1108/ETPC-01-2018-0012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/ETPC-01-2018-0012

O’Neal, L. T. J., Gibson, P., & Cotten, S. R. (2017). Elementary School Teachers’ Beliefs about the Role of Technology in 21st-Century Teaching and Learning. Computers in the Schools, 34(3), 192–206. https://doi.org/10.1080/07380569.2017.1347443. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/07380569.2017.1347443

Pardede, P. (2019). Mixed methods research designs in EFL. EED Collegiate Forum 2015-2018, October, 230–246.

Parmiti, D. P., Antara, I. G. W. S., & Wulandari, I. G. A. A. M. (2022). The Effectiveness of E-Scrapbook Media Containing HOTS Questions on Science Learning Outcomes of Elementary School Students. Journal of Education Research and Evaluation, 6(3), 484–491. https://doi.org/10.23887/jere.v6i3.52078. DOI: https://doi.org/10.23887/jere.v6i3.52078

Ramirez, M. R. B., & Mercado, J. N. L. (2019). Use of E-Book in Science Learning of Junior High Students in The University of Batangas. IOER International Multidiciplinary Research Journal, 1(1), 132–142. https://doi.org/ssrn.com/abstract=3379282. DOI: https://doi.org/10.54476/iimrj418

Rovira, M. S., Turro, M. R., Fioretti, R. M. S., & Velilla, M. C. (2015). Multimodal Campus Project: Pilot Test of Voice Supported Reading. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 196(July 2014), 190–197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.07.027. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.07.027

Sari, G. R., Santihastuti, A., & Wahjuningsih, E. (2020). Students’ Perception on Reading Comprehension Problems in Narrative Text. LLT Journal: A Journal on Language and Language Teaching, 23(2), 342–353. https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.v23i2.2211. DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.v23i2.2211

Savva, M., Higgins, S., & Beckmann, N. (2022). Meta‐analysis examining the effects of electronic storybooks on language and literacy outcomes for children in grades Pre‐K to grade 2. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 38(2), 526–564. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcal.12623. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jcal.12623

Shorten, A., & Smith, J. (2017). Mixed methods research: Expanding the evidence base. Evidence-Based Nursing, 20(3), 74–75. https://doi.org/10.1136/eb-2017-102699. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/eb-2017-102699

Sun, L., & Pan, C. E. (2021). Effects of the Application of Information Technology to E-Book Learning on Learning Motivation and Effectiveness. Frontiers in Psychology, 12(September), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.752303. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.752303

Tanjung, F. Z., Ridwan, R., & Gultom, U. A. (2017). Reading Habits in Digital Era: a Research on the Students in Borneo University. LLT Journal: A Journal on Language and Language Teaching, 20(2), 147–157. https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.v20i2.742. DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.v20i2.742

Taylor, D. B., Handler, L. K., FitzPatrick, E., & Whittingham, C. E. (2020). The device in the room: Technology’s role in third grade literacy instruction. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 52(4), 515–533. https://doi.org/10.1080/15391523.2020.1747577. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/15391523.2020.1747577

Tegmark, M., Alatalo, T., Vinterek, M., & Winberg, M. (2022). What motivates students to read at school? Student views on reading practices in middle and lower-secondary school. Journal of Research in Reading, 45(1), 100–118. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9817.12386. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9817.12386

Thoermer, A., & Williams, L. (2012). Using digital texts to promote fluent reading. The Reading Teacher, 65(7), 441–445. https://doi.org/10.1002/TRTR.01065. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/TRTR.01065

Thompson, R., & McIlnay, M. (2019). Nobody Wants to Read Anymore! Using a Multimodal Approach to Make Literature Engaging. Children’s Literature in English Language Education, 7(1), 61–80.

Triwahyuningtyas, D., Ningtyas, A. S., & Rahayu, S. (2020). The problem-based learning e-module of planes using Kvisoft Flipbook Maker for elementary school students. Jurnal Prima Edukasia, 8(2), 199–208. https://doi.org/10.21831/jpe.v8i2.34446. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21831/jpe.v8i2.34446

Walsh, J. J., Barnes, J. D., Tremblay, M. S., & Chaput, J. P. (2020). Associations between duration and type of electronic screen use and cognition in US children. Computers in Human Behavior, 108, 106312. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2020.106312. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2020.106312

Widodo, A., Dyah, I., Erfan, M., Maulyda, M. A., & Rahmatih, A. N. (2020). Profil Minat Baca Mahasiswa Baru PGSD Universitas Mataram. Premiere Educandum : Jurnal Pendidikan Dasar Dan Pembelajaran, 10(1), 34. https://doi.org/10.25273/pe.v10i1.5968. DOI: https://doi.org/10.25273/pe.v10i1.5968

Zhuang, L., Hsu, C. H., & Kumar, P. M. (2021). IoT based multimodal social interaction activity framework for the physical education system. Wireless Personal Communications, I, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11277-021-09014-w. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11277-021-09014-w




How to Cite

Liana Mumrikoh, Djono, D., & Drajati, N. A. . (2023). Urgency of E-Books Based Multimodal Approach Towards Reading Motivation for Elementary School Students. Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, 6(1), 71–80. https://doi.org/10.23887/jlls.v6i1.59399