• Ely Yeni Politeknik Negeri Sriwijaya
  • Herman Herman Politeknik Negeri Sriwijaya




Critical Reading, Online Learning, EFL


The literacy ability of Indonesian children is lower than children in other countries. In addition, students' vocabulary mastery is low. Even though the teacher had given vocabulary instruction to the students during the reading comprehension class, they still translated the text word by word into Indonesian. This study analyzes the effect of online learning on the acquisition of critical reading among students. This study used a pre-experimental study without a control group. Tests for the validity and reliability of reading comprehension texts and vocabulary tests were conducted before the test involving 40 participants. The technique used to collect data is a test. Validity and reliability were measured using some of the same texts used as pre-test and post-test. The pre-test and post-test scores were analyzed by Wilcoxon statistical analysis to test their reading scores before and after the intervention on the same subjects. The findings from the t-test revealed that the critical reading intervention was beneficial for students. Further studies showed that the instructional intervention adopted could help them improve their reading comprehension performance. These findings are expected to provide a teaching model that responds to the typical rise of today's online learning.

Author Biographies


English Department

Politeknik Negeri Sriwijaya


English Department

Politeknik Negeri Sriwijaya

Ely Yeni, Politeknik Negeri Sriwijaya

English Department

Politeknik Negeri Sriwijaya

Herman Herman, Politeknik Negeri Sriwijaya

English Department

Politeknik Negeri Sriwijaya


Akın, F., Koray, Ö., & Tavukçu, K. (2015). How Effective is Critical Reading in the Understanding of Scientific Texts? Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.915

Almaiah, M. A., Al-Khasawneh, A., & Althunibat, A. (2020). Exploring the critical challenges and factors influencing the E-learning system usage during COVID-19 pandemic. Education and Information Technologies, 25(6), 5261–5280. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-020-10219-y

Anitha Kumari, T., Hemalatha, C. H., Subhani Ali, M., & Naresh, R. (2020). Survey on impact and learning’s of the online courses on the present era. Procedia Computer Science, 172, 82–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2020.05.167

Ariani, T. (2020). Analysis of Students’ Critical Thinking Skills in Physics Problems. Physics Educational Journal, 3(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.37891/kpej.v3i1.119

Borre, Bernhard, Bleiker, & Winsler. (2019). Preschool Literacy Intervention for Low-Income , Ethnically Diverse Children : Effects of the Early Authors Program Through Kindergarten Preschool Literacy Intervention for Low-Income. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk (JESPAR), 24(2). https://doi.org/10.1080/10824669.2019.1594818

Cahyadi, A. (2020). Covid-19 Outbreak and New Normal Teaching in Higher Education: Empirical Resolve from Islamic Universities in Indonesia. Dinamika Ilmu, 20(2), 255–266. https://doi.org/10.21093/di.v20i2.2545

Cloonan, M. R., Cloonan, D. J., Schlitzkus, L. L., & Fingeret, A. L. (2020). Learners with Experience in Surgical Scrub Benefit from Additional Education with an Interactive E-Learning Module. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 4(2). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2020.08.521

Creed, P. A., Conlon, E. G., & Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J. (2012). Career barriers and reading ability as correlates of career aspirations and expectations of parents and their children. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 70(2). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2006.11.001

Din, M. (2020). Evaluating university students’ critical thinking ability as reflected in their critical reading skill: A study at bachelor level in Pakistan. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2020.100627

Djalante, R., Lassa, J., Setiamarga, D., Sudjatma, A., Indrawan, M., Haryanto, B., Mahfud, C., Sinapoy, M. S., Djalante, S., Rafliana, I., Gunawan, L. A., Surtiari, G. A. K., & Warsilah, H. (2020). Review and analysis of current responses to COVID-19 in Indonesia: Period of January to March 2020. Progress in Disaster Science, 6, 100091. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pdisas.2020.100091

Duncan, M. J., Smith, M., & Cook, K. (2013). Implementing online problem based learning (PBL) in postgraduates new to both online learning and PBL: An example from strength and conditioning. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education, 12(1), 79–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhlste.2012.11.004

Fernández-Gutiérrez, M., Gimenez, G., & Calero, J. (2020). Is the use of ICT in education leading to higher student outcomes? Analysis from the Spanish Autonomous Communities. Computers and Education, 157, 103969. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2020.103969

Fu, Q. K., & Hwang, G. J. (2018). Trends in mobile technology-supported collaborative learning: A systematic review of journal publications from 2007 to 2016. Computers and Education, 119(July 2017), 129–143. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2018.01.004

Geng, S., Law, K. M. Y., & Niu, B. (2019). Investigating self-directed learning and technology readiness in blending learning environment. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 16(1), 17. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41239-019-0147-0

Gusliati, P., Eliza, D., & Hartati, S. (2019). Analisis Video Pembelajaran Share Book Reading Menggunakan Cerita Rakyat Sabai Nan Aluih pada Anak Usia Dini. Jurnal Obsesi, 3(2). https://doi.org/10.31004/obsesi.v3i2.176

Haromi, F. A. (2014). Teaching through Appraisal: Developing Critical Reading in Iranian EFL Learners. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98(6). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.03.398

Hashimoto, T., Hayashi, Y., & Seta, K. (2019). Metacognitive Inference Activity Support by Visualizing Eye-Movement Graph During Critical Reading. Procedia Computer Science, 159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2019.09.372

Heidari, K. (2020). Critical thinking and EFL learners’ performance on textually-explicit, textually-implicit, and script-based reading items. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2020.100703

Hochweber, J., & Vieluf, S. (2018). Gender differences in reading achievement and enjoyment of reading: The role of perceived teaching quality. Journal of Educational Research, 111(3), 268–283. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220671.2016.1253536

Hogan, R., & Devi, M. (2019). A synchronous pedagogy to improve online student success. International Journal of Online Pedagogy and Course Design, 9(3), 61–77. https://doi.org/10.4018/IJOPCD.2019070105

Hwang, G. J., Wu, P. H., & Chen, C. C. (2012). An online game approach for improving students’ learning performance in web-based problem-solving activities. Computers and Education, 59(4), 1246–1256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2012.05.009

Jang, M., Aavakare, M., Nikou, S., & Kim, S. (2021). The impact of literacy on intention to use digital technology for learning: A comparative study of Korea and Finland. Telecommunications Policy, 45(7). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.telpol.2021.102154

Kadafi, A., Alfaiz, A., Ramli, M., Asri, D. N., & Finayanti, J. (2021). The impact of islamic counseling intervention towards students’ mindfulness and anxiety during the covid-19 pandemic. Islamic Guidance and Counseling Journal, 4(1), 55–66. https://doi.org/10.25217/igcj.v4i1.1018

Karasmanaki, E., & Tsantopoulos, G. (2021). Impacts of social distancing during COVID-19 pandemic on the daily life of forestry students. Children and Youth Services Review, 120(December 2020), 105781. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105781

Kemp, S. E. (2017). RAP: A reading comprehension strategy for students with learning disabilities and concomitant speech language impairments or ADHD. Journal of Education and Training, 4(2). https://doi.org/10.5296/jet.v4i2.11614

Khan, F. M. A., & Masood, M. (2015). The Effectiveness of an Interactive Multimedia Courseware with Cooperative Mastery Approach in Enhancing Higher Order Thinking Skills in Learning Cellular Respiration. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 176, 977–984. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.567

Komalasari, K., & Rahmat, R. (2019). Living Values Based Interactive Multimedia in Civic Education Learning. International Journal of Instruction, 12(1), 113–126. https://doi.org/10.29333/iji.2019.1218a

Kuzmanović, M., Andjelković-Labrović, J., & Nikodijević, A. (2019). Designing e-learning environment based on student preferences: Conjoint analysis approach. International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science Engineering and Education, 7(3), 37–47. https://doi.org/10.5937/ijcrsee1903037k

Lai, A. F., Chen, C. H., & Lee, G. Y. (2019). An augmented reality-based learning approach to enhancing students’ science reading performances from the perspective of the cognitive load theory. British Journal of Educational Technology, 50(1), 232–247. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12716

Lawrence, J. E., & Tar, U. A. (2018). Factors that influence teachers’ adoption and integration of ICT in teaching/learning process. Educational Media International, 55(1), 79–105. https://doi.org/10.1080/09523987.2018.1439712

Liao, S., Hong, J.-C., Wen, M.-H., Pan, Y.-C., & Wu, Y.-. (2018). Applying Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to explore Users’ Behavioral Intention to Adopt a Performance Assessment System for E-book Production. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 14(10). https://doi.org/10.29333/ejmste/93575

Maryani, N., Ichsan, M., & Khairunnisa. (2017). Signifikansi Metode Guide Reading Terhadap Motivasi Belajar Siswa Dalam Teori Membaca Nyaring Guide Reading Method On Students ’ Learning Motivation In Reading Loudly Lesson. Didaktika Tauhidi: Jurnal Pendidikan Guru Sekolah Dasar, 4(2), 126–139. https://doi.org/10.30997/dt.v4i2.924

McGarr, O., & Gallchóir, C. Ó. (2021). Examining supervising field instructors’ reporting and assessment of technology use by pre-service teachers on school placement. Computers & Education, 146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2019.103753

Memiş, A. D., & Kandemir, H. (2019). The Relationship Between the Study Habits and Attitudes and Metacognitive Reading Comprehension Self-Awareness, Reading Comprehension, Reading Attitudes. World Journal of Education, 9(4), 133. https://doi.org/10.5430/wje.v9n4p133

Moghadam, Z. B., Narafshan, M. H., & Tajadini, M. (2021). Development of a Critical Self in the Language Reading Classroom: An examination of Learners’ L2 Self. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2021.100944

Mpungose, C. B. (2021). Lecturers’ reflections on use of Zoom video conferencing technology for e-learning at a South African university in the context of coronavirus. African Identities. https://doi.org/10.1080/14725843.2021.1902268

Primamukti, A. D., & Farozin, M. (2018). Utilization of interactive multimedia to improve learning interest and learning achievement of child. Jurnal Prima Edukasia, 6(2), 111–117. https://doi.org/10.21831/jpe.v6i2.19183

Reilly, C. A. (2021). Reading risk: Preparing students to develop critical digital literacies and advocate for privacy in digital spaces. Computers and Composition, 61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compcom.2021.102652

Rhim, H. C., & Han, H. (2020). Teaching online: foundational concepts of online learning and practical guidelines. Korean Journal of Medical Education, 32(3), 175–183. https://doi.org/10.3946/kjme.2020.171

Roosa, K., Lee, Y., Luo, R., Kirpich, A., Rothenberg, R., Hyman, J. M., Yan, P., & Chowell, G. (2020). Real-time forecasts of the COVID-19 epidemic in China from February 5th to February 24th, 2020. Infectious Disease Modelling, 5, 256–263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idm.2020.02.002

Rubini, B., Permanasari, A., & Yuningsih, W. (2018). Learning Multimedia Based on Science Literacy on the Lightning Theme. Jurnal Penelitian Dan Pembelajaran IPA, 4(2), 89–104. https://doi.org/10.30870/jppi.v4i2.3926

Saprudin, S., Liliasari, L., Prihatmanto, A. S., & Setiawan, A. (2019). The Potential of Gamification in Developing Pre-Service Physics Teachers’ Critical and Creative Thinking Skills. Omega: Jurnal Fisika Dan Pendidikan Fisika, 5(1), 167–171. https://doi.org/10.31758/omegajphysphyseduc.v5i1.7

Seibert, S. A. (2020). Problem-based learning: A strategy to foster generation Z’s critical thinking and perseverance. Teaching and Learning in Nursing, 000, 2–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.teln.2020.09.002

Shastina, E. M., Jentgens, S., Shatunova, O. V., Borisov, A. M., & Bozhkova, G. N. (2020). Role of literary pedagogy in modern education of preschool and primary school children. Space and Culture, 8(1), 234–243. https://doi.org/10.20896/saci.v8i1.795

Stover, K., Yearta, L., & Harris, C. (2016). Experiential Learning for Preservice Teachers: Digital Book Clubs With Third Graders. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 32(1), 5–12. https://doi.org/10.1080/21532974.2015.1055013

Sverdlov, A., Aram, D., & Levin, I. (2014). Kindergarten teachers’ literacy beliefs and self-reported practices: On the heels of a new national literacy curriculum. Teaching and Teacher Education, 39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2013.12.004

Talebi, M., & Marzban, A. (2015). The Effect of Teaching Critical Reading Strategies on Advanced Iranian EFL Learners’ Vocabulary Retention. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 5. https://doi.org/10.17507/tpls.0503.17.

Utami, T. N., Jatmiko, A., & Suherman, S. (2018). Pengembangan Modul Matematika dengan Pendekatan Science, Technology, Engineering, And Mathematics (STEM) pada Materi Segiempat. Desimal: Jurnal Matematika, 1(2), 165. https://doi.org/10.24042/djm.v1i2.2388

Xiaoming, Zhang, L. J., & Dixon, H. R. (2021). Implementing Assessment for learning (AfL) in Chinese university EFL classes: Teachers’ values and practices. System, 10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2021.102589

Yuzulia, I. (2020). EFL tecahers’ perceptions and stratgeies in inplementing learner autonomy. Journal of Linguistics and Language Teaching, 6(1), 36–54. https://doi.org/10.29300/ling.v6i1.2744