Phenomenology of Critical Literacy for Preservice Teachers in the 21st Century Era


  • Octavian Muning Sayekti Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Haryanto Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • St. Kartono Universitas Sanata Dharma, Yogyakarta, Indonesia



critical literacy, pre-service teacher, phenomenology


Critical literacy skills still need to be developed, considering that the essential power of students is not yet maximized, which is characterized by being easily provoked and having difficulty solving problems. Candidates for elementary school teachers who will later be in control at the basic education level are expected to master these abilities before they teach them to students. This study aims to analyze the extent of critical literacy mastery of elementary school teacher education students. The method used is qualitative with a phenomenological approach. The research was conducted at the Department of Elementary School Teacher Education, with 142 students. To collect data, this study used interviews, observation, and documentation. The data analysis technique uses the Bogdan and Biklen model, namely analyzing data by narrowing the findings based on phenomena. The result of this research is that the mastery of critical literacy, owned by the Elementary School Teacher Education Study Program students, is quite good even though all students do not evenly share this mastery. Mastery of critical literacy is manifested in collaborative activities, socio-cultural linkages, and the involvement of reflective thinking. This study implies that essential literacy learning should be part of the curriculum to have an honest and targeted impact.


Abdel Latif, M. M. M. (2022). EFL teachers' critical literacy instructional perspectives and practices: The case of the Egyptian university context. Teaching and Teacher Education, 115. DOI:

Albro, J., & Turner, J. D. (2019). Six Key Principles: Bridging Students' Career Dreams and Literacy Standards. Reading Teacher, 73(2), 161–172. DOI:

Aldegether, R. (2020). Predicting reflective thinking among saudi elementary school teachers in riyadh public schools. International Journal of Education and Practice, 8(3), 405–415. DOI:

Bobkina, J., & Stefanova, S. (2016). Literature and critical literacy pedagogy in the EFL classroom: Towards a model of teaching critical thinking skills. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 6(4), 677–696. DOI:

Bogdan, R., & Biklen, S. K. (2007). Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theories and methods (7th ed.). Pearson.

Boyd, A. S., & Darragh, J. J. (2020). Critical literacies on the university campus: Engaging pre-service teachers with social action projects. English Teaching, 19(1), 49–63. DOI:

Creswell, J. (2009). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches (3rd ed.). SAGE Publications Inc.

Deng, Y., Kelly, G. J., & Deng, S. (2019). The influences of integrating reading, peer evaluation, and discussion on undergraduate students' scientific writing. International Journal of Science Education, 41(10), 1408–1433. DOI:

Farida, N., & Putra, K. A. D. (2021). Upaya Menumbuhkan Kemampuan Literasi Kritis oleh Berdikari Book. Lentera Pustaka: Jurnal Kajian Ilmu Perpustakaan, Informasi Dan Kearsipan, 7(1), 51–64. DOI:

Freire, P. (1968). Pedagogy of the oppressed. The Continuum.

Giselsson, K. (2020). Critical Thinking and Critical Literacy: Mutually Exclusive? International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 14(1), 1–9. DOI:

Hamilton, L. G., Hayiou-Thomas, M. E., Hulme, C., Snowling, M. J., & Snowling©, M. J. (2016). Scientific Studies of Reading The Home Literacy Environment as a Predictor of the Early Literacy Development of Children at Family-Risk of Dyslexia. DOI:

Hendrix-Soto, A., & Mosley Wetzel, M. (2019). A review of critical literacies in preservice teacher education: pedagogies, shifts, and barriers. Teaching Education, 30(2), 200–216. DOI:

Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Smith, K. (2007). The state of cooperative learning in postsecondary and professional settings. Educational Psychology Review, 19(1), 15–29. DOI:

Kern, R. (2002). Reconciling the Language-Literatur Split through Lit_eracy. AFDL Bulletin, 33(3), 1–11.

Kidman, G. (2012). Australia at the crossroads: A review of school science practical work. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 8(1). DOI:

Kivunja, C. (2014). Teaching students to learn and to work well with 21st Century skills: Unpacking the career and life skills domain of the new learning paradigm. International Journal of Higher Education, 4(1), 1–11. DOI:

Koch, H., & Spörer, N. (2017). Students Improve in Reading Comprehension by Learning How to Teach Reading Strategies. An Evidence-based Approach for Teacher Education. Psychology Learning and Teaching, 16(2), 197–211. DOI:

Koh, A. (2019). Travelling with and teaching critical literacy in Singapore, Australia, and Hong Kong: A call for postcritique. Curriculum Inquiry, 49(2), 203–216. DOI:

Koo Y, L., Wong F, F., Kemboja, I., Chang P, K., & Mohd, S, M, Y. (2011). Literasi Kritikal Dalam Konteks Pendidikan Tinggi : Critical Literacy In Higher Education : Voices From A Malaysian Classroom. GEMA OnlineTM Journal of Language Studies, 11(May), 99–120.

Le, H., Janssen, J., & Wubbels, T. (2018). Collaborative learning practices: teacher and student perceived obstacles to effective student collaboration. Cambridge Journal of Education, 48(1), 103–122. DOI:

Md-Ali, R., Karim, H. B. B. A., & Yusof, F. M. (2016). Experienced primary school teachers' thoughts on effective teachers of literacy and numeracy. Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction, 13(1), 43–62. DOI:

Napitupulu, C. A., Ananda, K., Praticia, R., & Rahmadini, V. W. (2021). Implementasi Pembelajaran Kolaboratif Daring (Online Collaborative Learning) dalam Rangka Pembentukan Dukungan Sosial Mahasiswa PG PAUD Universitas Palangka Raya. Jurnal Pendidikan Dan Psikologi Pintar Harati, 17(1), 55–66.

Norris, K., Lucas, L., Prudhoe, C., & Chester, W. (2012). Examining Critical Literacy in the Early Childhood Classroom. Multicultural Education, 19(2), 59–62.

Pandya, J., & Ávila, J. (2014). Moving critical literacies forward. Routledge. DOI:

Pilgrim, J., & Martinez, E. E. (2013). Defining literacy in the 21st Century: A Guide to Terminology and Skills. Texas Journal of Literacy Education, 1(1), 60–69.

Ramirez, H. J. M. (2021). Facilitating Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning with Question-Asking Scripting Activity and its Effects on Students' Conceptual Understanding and Critical Thinking in Science. International Journal of Innovation in Science and Mathematics Education, 29(1), 31–45. DOI:

Rintaningrum, R. (2009). Literacy: Its Importance and Changes in the Concept and Definition. Teflin, 20(1), 1–7.

Rogers, R., Mosley Wetzel, M., & O’Daniels, K. (2016). Learning to teach, learning to act: becoming a critical literacy teacher. Pedagogies, 11(4), 292–310. DOI:

Rohman, A., Islam, U., & Sunan, N. (2022). Literasi dalam Meningkatkan Kemampuan Berpikir Kritis di Era Disrupsi. Jurnal Pendidikan Bahasa Indonesia, 2(1), 40–47. DOI:

Sari, N. A., Mulyani, S., Hastuti, B., Rifai, I., Setiadi, C. J., Renaldo, J., & Andreani, W. (2020). IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science Analysis of High School Students' STEM Literacy and Problem-Solving Skills in Chemistry Toward society 5.0: Indonesia and Japan on the 21 st century literacy skills. IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci, 729, 12102. DOI:

Setiawan, Innatesari, D. K., Sabtiawan, W. B., & Sudarmin, S. (2017). The development of local wisdom-based natural science module to improve science literation of students. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 6(1), 49–54. DOI:

Suggate, S., Schaughency, E., McAnally, H., & Reese, E. (2018). From infancy to adolescence: The longitudinal links between vocabulary, early literacy skills, oral narrative, and reading comprehension. Cognitive Development, 47(April), 82–95. DOI:

Sujana, A., & Rachmatin, D. (2019). Literasi Digital Abad 21 Bagi Mahasiswa PGSD: Apa, Mengapa, dan Bagaimana. Conference Series Journal, 1(1), 1–7.

Sumtsova, O. V., Aikina, T. Y., Bolsunovskaya, L. M., Phillips, C., Zubkova, O. M., & Mitchell, P. J. (2018). Collaborative learning at engineering universities: Benefits and challenges. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 13(1), 160–177. DOI:

Van Maanen, J. (2011). The Fact of Fiction in Organizational Ethnography Author ( s ): John Van Maanen Source : Administrative Science Quarterly , Vol . 24 , No . 4 , Qualitative Methodology ( Dec ., 1979 ), Published by : Johnson Graduate School of Management , Cornell Univers. Methodology, 24(4), 539–550. DOI:

Vasquez, V. M., Janks, H., & Comber, B. (2019). Beyond the written word: Newspapers as critical literacy teaching tools in the South African classroom. English Language Teaching Educational Journal, 96(5), 300–311. DOI:

Wallendorf, M. (2001). Literally Literacy: Table 1. Journal of Consumer Research, 27(4), 505–511. DOI:

Wattimena, R. A. A. (2018). Pedagogi Kritis: Pemikiran Henry Giroux Tentang Pendidikan dan Relevansinya untuk Indonesia. Jurnal Filsafat, 28(2), 180. DOI:

Wood, S., & Jocius, R. (2013). Combating "i hate this stupid book!": Black males and critical literacy. Reading Teacher, 66(8), 661–669. DOI:

Yustiwa, G. M., & Madiun, U. P. (2022). Urgensi keterampilan literasi kritis pada guru sekolah dasar. Prosiding Konferensi Ilmiah Dasar, 3, 539–547.




How to Cite

Sayekti, O. M., Haryanto, & Kartono, S. . (2022). Phenomenology of Critical Literacy for Preservice Teachers in the 21st Century Era. Jurnal Pendidikan Dan Pengajaran, 55(3), 512–522.